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- Examine the history of intelligence testing.
- Explain how biological factors can influence intelligence.
- Explore different types of intelligence.
- Define creativity and divergent thinking.
- Understand how language is acquired.
- Learn how our brains process information.
- Discuss the different categories of memory.
- Differentiate between top-down and bottom-up processing.
- Describe strategies for improving short-term and long-term memory.
- Understand what causes memory distortion.
- Discuss the different types of heuristics.
1. Studying Intelligence: History, Psychologists & Theories
We all want to be smart in one way or another, but what exactly is general intelligence? This lesson takes a look at the possible factors behind intellectual development and how this controversial topic has been examined by psychologists.
2. History of Intelligence Testing in Psychology
Throughout the years, there have been many methods used that attempted to accurately quantify and measure human intelligence. You've probably heard of or taken an IQ test, but what does an IQ test actually measure? Find out in this lesson.
3. Studying Intelligence: Biological vs. Environmental Factors
Have you ever wondered if your intelligence is entirely due to genetics or if it's shaped by the environment surrounding you? In this lesson, you'll learn about the factors that affect and influence a person's intelligence.
4. What is Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences?
Which types of intelligence do you identify with? As you watch this video on Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, you'll learn that intelligence can be a diverse concept not limited to one area.
5. Analytical Intelligence, Divergent Thinking & Creativity
Some people tend to think more analytically, while some are creative thinkers by nature. Is creativity an important skill for solving problems? In this lesson, we'll learn the differences between creative and analytical thinking and discover ways to nurture creative thinking.
6. What Is Language?
Have you ever wondered how human language is constructed to form meaning? Why is language more complex than animal calls? In this lesson, we'll take a look at the basic units language and learn how meaning is formed.
7. Language Acquisition: Definition, Theories & Stages
Have you ever wondered how humans are able to learn, process, comprehend and speak a language? In this lesson on language acquisition, we'll take a look at some distinctions between languages and learn how babies come to understand and speak a language.
8. Information Processing: Encoding, Storage & Retrieval
How does your brain remember information and recall it later? In this lesson, you'll look at the steps your brain takes as it processes data from short-term memory and stores it as long-term memory.
9. Categories of Memory: Sensory & Long-Term
Did you know that there are several types of memories? How does your brain keep track of them all? In this lesson, as you observe your surroundings at an art museum, you'll come to understand how your brain categorizes memory so you can remember your experiences.
10. Attention and Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Processing
Are you a big-picture person or do you get caught up in the details? Explore two ways that you can use your cognitive resources to focus your attention. This lesson provides both the details and the big picture for top-down and bottom-up processing.
11. George Miller's Psychological Study to Improve Short-Term Memory
Wouldn't it be nice to improve your short-term memory? According to one psychological study, there are, in fact, ways you can organize sets of new information to make them easier to remember. Based on the study, this lesson examines a method that can increase your short-term memory.
12. Using Psychology to Improve Long-Term Memory
What are some tips for improving your memory? This memorable lesson on memory covers self-referencing, mnemonic devices, spaced repetition and rehearsal. You won't want to cram for exams once you learn these better ways to improve your long-term memory!
13. Memory Distortion: Source Amnesia, Misinformation Effect & Choice-Supportive Bias
With all the information we learn and process every day, it can be difficult to remember things accurately. Because of this, our memory can become distorted. In this lesson, we'll learn how our brain can trick us into falsely remembering details of our past experiences.
14. Types of Heuristics: Availability, Representativeness & Base-Rate
Did you know that our brain uses strategies to process information and draw conclusions? Although we're able to reach conclusions through these mental strategies, sometimes, our reasoning can be off. Read on to discover how our brain draws these conclusions and why they can be wrong.
15. Artistic Personality Type: Traits & Common Careers
In this lesson, you will learn about the artistic personality trait and how it relates to long-term career success. Following this lesson you will have the opportunity to test your knowledge by taking a short quiz.
16. Distributed Cognition: Definition & Theory
Edwin Hutchins contributes to cognitive science by challenging the traditional view of the mind. In this lesson, we'll explore his distributed cognition theory and consider your mind to be larger than life itself.
17. Divergent Thinking: Definition & Examples
Did you know that Albert Einstein and Thomas Edison are both famous divergent thinkers? Learn about divergent thinking, how it differs from convergent thinking, and more.
18. Echoic Memory: Definition & Explanation
In this lesson, you will learn about a specific sub-type of sensory memory referred to as echoic memory. Following the lesson, you will have the opportunity to test your knowledge with a short quiz.
19. Elizabeth Loftus: Experiments, Theories & Contributions to Psychology
The following lesson will discuss memory and the information discovered by one of the foremost researchers in the field, Elizabeth Loftus. She is known for her work on understanding how memories are created.
20. False Consensus Effect: Definition & Example
False consensus effect refers to the tendency of people to overestimate the level to which other people share their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Learn false consensus effects and how they are related to external factors.
21. Flynn Effect: Definition & Explanation
In this lesson, we investigate the Flynn Effect and explore its relation to intelligence and intelligence testing. Learn why the Flynn effect is important in psychology, and test yourself with quiz questions.
22. Henry Goddard: Eugenicist & Inheritability of Intelligence
Henry Goddard is often called the father of American intelligence testing. His controversial work helped shape public education in the United States, while reinforcing negative stereotypes of those with intellectual disabilities. Learn more about the life and work of this controversial figure.
23. Hermann Ebbinghaus on Memory & Illusion: Experiment & Overview
Do you wish your memory was better? If you read on about the research of Hermann Ebbinghaus, you will discover the circumstances under which we retain information the best. As an added bonus, find out a bit about optical illusions.
24. Howard Gardner - Multiple Intelligences and Frames of Mind: Overview
Howard Gardner pioneered a new way of thinking about intelligence that is unconventional but well received. His theory has practical application for how we go about learning new skills and choosing the type of work we find most satisfying. Learn more about Howard Gardner and the different types of intelligences, then test your knowledge with a quiz.
25. Language Skills in Children: Development, Definition & Types
The development of language skills in young children is a multi-step process that is both fascinating and complex. Learn how language skills are formed, important milestones for language development and test your knowledge with quiz questions.
26. Linguistic Diversity: Definition & Overview
Language can be considered a particularly human invention. People need language to communicate with one another in order to survive. This lesson explores why there are so many languages and how these languages may be compared.
27. Recency Effect in Psychology: Definition & Example
The human brain is weird, and unless you have an eidetic memory, you probably don't remember everything you read. You tend to remember the first part, some random stuff in the middle, and the end. What is that all about?
28. State-Dependent Memory: Definition & Overview
Memory is often viewed as a video recorder when it is actually is not. Memories can be influenced by several factors, including those that are external and internal. This article explores the research and ideas behind State-Dependent Memories using unusual but interesting examples.
29. What Is Creativity? - Definition & Exercises
Creativity is a novel response to a task that is useful, appropriate, and/or valuable. Creativity presents itself at several levels, and almost anyone can be creative.
30. Baddeley's Model of Working Memory
In this lesson, we'll talk about the British psychologist Alan Baddeley's model of working memory, which seeks to explain how we store quick and fleeting memories. We'll talk about each component of this four-part system.
31. Cognitive-Behavior Modification Approach by Meichenbaum
In a series of therapy sessions, psychologist Donald Meichenbaum helps a woman transform the traumatic and sad story of her life by shedding light on its positive aspects. In this lesson, you will learn how Meichenbaum turns a sad story to a positive one with cognitive-behavioral modification.
32. Embodied Cognition: Definition, Theory & Experiments
In this lesson, we'll discuss the theory of embodied cognition, which suggests our bodies are very important to the process of cognition, or thinking. We'll discuss some of the experiments that psychologists have done to understand embodied cognition.
33. Famous Cognitive Dissonance Experiments
In this lesson, we'll talk about the psychological theory of cognitive dissonance, and a famous experiment done by psychologist Leon Festinger, who developed the theory of cognitive dissonance. Then you can test your knowledge with a quiz!
34. Trends in Cognitive Science
Cognitive scientists are trying to discover how your mind works. Breakthroughs offer some answers and many new questions. In this lesson, we'll take a look at where it all started, and discuss some of what is happening in cognitive science.
35. Code-Switching: Definition & Examples
When you mix words and phrases from two languages or dialects, or mix standard and specialized vocabulary, you are __code-switching__. You can code-switch to emphasize membership in a social, economic, regional, ethnic or religious group, for example.
36. Cognitive Inhibition: Definition & Example
This lesson will help you understand the concept of cognitive inhibition and its relevance. After this lesson you should have gained increased familiarity and a deeper understanding of this term.
37. Cognitive Inhibition in Depression
This lesson discusses how a deficit in cognitive inhibition works as a contributor for depression in some people. The lesson defines cognitive inhibition as a normal process and talks about how an inability to depress negative feelings contributes to depression.
38. Cognitive Inhibition: Development & Role
Have you ever noticed how you can tune out certain things you see or hear? In this lesson, we'll discuss how cognitive inhibition develops in you, and its role in your life.
39. Cognitive Psychotherapy: Types & Techniques
Cognitive psychotherapy is a type of psychotherapy developed primarily by Dr. Aaron Beck in the 1960's. It was founded on the theory that our thinking and thoughts determine our feelings and emotions, and is used in treatments administered by psychologists and mental health professionals.
40. Collective Memory: Definition, History & Theory
Collective memory is the term for the memories of a group of people who have collected them through shared social experiences. This lesson discusses the origins of collective memory and the theory.
41. Diminished Capacity in Psychology: Definition & Examples
When you have diminished psychological capacity, you no longer have the ability to make effective, reasonable decisions regarding your life. In this lesson, we'll discuss the definition of diminished capacity and look at some examples.
42. Infant Amnesia: Definition & Causes
Have you ever wondered why you can't remember being a baby? Infant amnesia is defined and discussed in this lesson. The lesson presents many theories concerning the cause of infantile amnesia.
43. Memory Reconsolidation: Definition, Theory & Example
Memory reconsolidation allows therapists to access traumatic, emotionally-coded memories, and provides a way to recode those memories. In this lesson, we'll discuss the definition and theory, then we'll walk through an example.
44. Memory Span: Definition, Measurement & Examples
Did you know that the average memory span is only 7 items long? In this lesson we will define memory span, discuss memory span as a measurement of short term memory, and more.
45. What is Lateral Thinking? - Definition, Theory & Examples
This lesson goes over the concept of lateral thinking. You'll learn what the phrase means, explore some of the basic theory behind it, and see a few examples of lateral thinking.
46. Lateral Thinking Techniques
This lesson is going to cover a scenario where using lateral thinking would be important. Along the way, you'll learn several lateral thinking techniques that can help you solve complex problems.
47. Vertical Thinking vs. Lateral Thinking
What is vertical thinking? What is lateral thinking? What's the difference between them? This lesson is going to define these two topics and differentiate between the two of them as well.
48. Vertical Thinking: Definition, Method & Examples
This lesson goes over the concept of vertical thinking. You'll learn its definition, some of the core methods behind it, as well as numerous examples of it in practice.
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Other chapters within the Introduction to Psychology: Tutoring Solution course
- History and Approaches: Tutoring Solution
- Biological Bases of Behavior: Tutoring Solution
- Sensation and Perception: Tutoring Solution
- States of Consciousness: Tutoring Solution
- Learning: Tutoring Solution
- Motivation and Emotion: Tutoring Solution
- Developmental Psychology: Tutoring Solution
- Personality: Tutoring Solution
- Theories of Social Psychology: Tutoring Solution
- Psychological Disorders and Health: Tutoring Solution
- Psychological Treatments: Tutoring Solution
- Statistics, Tests and Measurement: Tutoring Solution