About This Chapter
Intro to Educational Psychology: Cognitive Perspective
How we learn, remember, process information, create ideas and solve problems lies inside our brain. In our lessons on cognitive perspective, you'll take a look at all these functions and processes to gain a better understanding of how they occur.
Lessons will describe the process of learning and information-processing. You'll study the principles of perception as defined by German psychologists. The differences in sensation and perception will also be touched upon in the lessons.
Memory is covered in-depth through our lessons. You'll look at a variety of memory-related processes and study a range of related information. Begin with a look at the two-store model of memory, where you will study the types of memory and the ways memories are stored. The lessons will go over the stages of memory as well. Move into lessons on short-term and long-term memory. Take a look into how short-term memory works and how it's related to the auditory system. Discover the process of long-term memory and become familiar with terms that include episodic knowledge, automaticity and implicit memories.
Next, go on to learn about memory retrieval and the use of mnemonic devices. Also look at other ways to improve memory retention, such as rehearsal, chunking and acronyms. Lessons go into discussions of long-term memory retrieval and cover how knowledge may be blocked. Specifically, learn more about amnesia. Study the ideas of schemata and scripts, too.
Dig into a lesson about information transfer. Take a look into the ways information can be transferred, such as low-road vs. high-road. From here, lessons will talk about cognitive thinking, which includes creativity. Find out more about creative thinking methods and learn about the different types of thinking. Also see how brainstorming can be quite beneficial in the creative process. Continue on to study a lesson on improving creativity in a learning environment. Discover more about what creativity is and how it can be used.
To round out the lessons, you'll watch a video on problem-solving. Discover through this lesson the types of problems that you may need to solve. Look at the IDEAL strategy for problem-solving and learn how you can apply it in your own life. The lesson will also go into other problem-solving methods, like algorithms. You'll also be introduced to things that could make solving a problem harder and learn how to deal with these issues.
1. Cognitive Perspective of Learning & Information Processing
When you see or hear something in your environment, how does your brain recognize what you are seeing or hearing? This lesson introduces the cognitive perspective in psychology, including the difference between sensation and perception. We'll also discuss the famous Gestalt principles of perception that you do automatically every day but didn't necessarily know there were names for what your brain was doing.
2. The Two-Store Model of Memory: Types of Memory and Storage
Do you remember your first day of school? This lesson discusses the foundational concepts behind all memories, including basic types of memory and the process all memories must go through for success: encoding, storage and retrieval.
3. Categories of Memory: Sensory & Long-Term
Did you know that there are several types of memories? How does your brain keep track of them all? In this lesson, as you observe your surroundings at an art museum, you'll come to understand how your brain categorizes memory so you can remember your experiences.
4. Short-Term Memory: How STM Works
All memories must first pass through short-term memory (STM) before becoming permanent. But how does STM really work? This lesson covers several aspects of STM, including why it seems to be an auditory-based system, how much information can be stored and the serial position curve.
5. Improving Retrieval of Memories: Mnemonic Devices
When you have to study for a test and you need to remember a large amount of information, what strategies do you use to help your memory? These strategies are called mnemonic devices. This lesson covers several well-known mnemonic devices, such as chunking, the method of loci and the keyword technique.
6. Retrieving Long-Term Memories: Interference, Amnesia & State-Dependent Memory
Have you ever been sure that you know something but simply can't pull it out of your memory? This frustrating experience is a lack of retrieval, and this lesson discusses several aspects of successful retrieval, including retroactive and proactive interference, state-dependent memory and different forms of amnesia.
7. Knowledge Organization: Schemata and Scripts
How does your mind organize the world? When you see a new animal, can you easily tell if it's a bird, mammal or fish? Categories and mental structures, such as types of animals, are called schemata. This lesson discusses different types of schemata and why they are important.
8. Types of Information Transfer
When you acquire one skill, does that ability help or hurt your ability to learn other skills? For example, learning to play the guitar might help you learn to play the banjo, but it probably doesn't affect your ability to learn the geography of Africa. This lesson focuses on transfer of information, including positive, negative and zero transfer, as well as the difference between high-road and low-road transfer of information.
9. Cognitive Thinking: Creativity, Brainstorming and Convergent & Divergent Thinking
Creativity is useful in almost any situation, but how is creativity defined? This lesson covers the definition of creativity and discusses how creativity requires several different types of thinking, including divergent thinking and synthetic, analytic, and practical intelligence. This lesson also defines and describes brainstorming.
10. How to Advance Creativity in a Learning Environment
Students in a classroom can attempt to solve problems in a wide variety of creative ways. This lesson defines creativity and then covers barriers to thinking creatively, including response sets and functional fixedness. Finally, the lesson discusses different types of creative problem solving, including brainstorming and working backward.
11. Types of Problems & Problem Solving Strategies
We solve hundreds of small problems everyday. This lesson covers different types of problems, such as routine vs. non-routine, and many of the different problem-solving strategies we use, including algorithms, heuristics, graphic representations and the IDEAL Strategy.
12. Availability Heuristic: Examples & Definition
In this lesson, we will explore the availability heuristic and how it impacts the way we make decisions and come to conclusions. Challenge your brain with some interesting examples and test your understanding with a quiz.
13. Piaget's Formal Operational Stage: Definition & Examples
The following lesson provides a definition and examples of Piaget's formal operational stage of cognitive development. A quiz is also provided to assess your understanding of the topic.
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