About This Chapter
Compass ESL - Grammar - Chapter Summary
After studying the online video lessons in this Grammar chapter, you should be able to differentiate between nouns and pronouns, and understand the functions of various kinds of verbs. You'll learn when to use an antecedent or a pronoun and discover the correct use of adverbs and adjectives. These lessons can familiarize you with the sorts of questions you'll answer on the ACT Compass ESL English Test, which includes grammar-related questions. This chapter will help you to:
- Understand the meanings of nouns and pronouns as well as the different kinds of pronouns
- Learn the grammar rules for using nouns and antecedents
- Define antecedent and compound antecedent
- Correctly use action, auxiliary and linking verbs
- Recognize various verb forms
- Make comparisons between adjectives and adverbs
- Define predicates as well as indefinite and definite articles
- Understand verb tense errors and discover the differences between the active and passive voices
- Avoid the use of dangling or misplaced modifiers
These online video lessons are brief but educational. As you prepare for the ACT Compass ESL English Test, you'll want to get the most out of this chapter. You can do this by asking questions of the experienced lesson teachers. The lessons include written transcripts of the video content. Video tags allow you to go back in the video to re-watch certain sections. Lastly, you should take the self-assessment quizzes and the practice chapter examination to get an idea of the questions you'll face on the ACT exam.
Compass ESL - Grammar Objectives
During the ACT Compass ESL English Test, you'll answer questions on four different content areas, including grammar and usage. Within the grammar/usage assessment, you'll be expected to know about sentence structure, elements and syntax. You'll need to comprehend the material in this Grammar chapter because you'll be tested on your ability to understand subject-verb agreement as well as the agreement between antecedents and pronouns. You'll also need to display an understanding of pronoun case and verb formation. Some questions in this section will be in fill-in-the-blank format while others list several options that you'll choose the best answer from after reading a passage.
1. What Are Nouns? - Definition, Types & Examples
A noun is a part of speech that identifies a person, place, thing, or idea. In this lesson, in addition to learning how to identify nouns, you'll learn the difference between proper and common nouns and a bit about how nouns function in sentences.
2. What Are Pronouns? - Types, Examples & Definition
In this lesson, we'll learn about pronouns in general, and take a look at two types of personal pronouns: subjective case and objective case pronouns. Knowing which case of pronoun you'll need can help you avoid common pronoun errors.
3. Pronouns: Relative, Reflexive, Interrogative & Possessive
In this lesson, we'll look at relative, reflexive, interrogative and possessive pronouns. We'll do this by antagonizing our friend Gary with the whos, whats, whoms, and whichevers that make up these pronouns.
4. Using Nouns as the Subject of a Sentence: Grammar Rules & Examples
A subject is an essential part of a sentence. This video explains the role that subjects play in sentences, how nouns work as subjects and the various types of subjects.
5. What is an Antecedent? - Definition, Meaning & Examples
If you have a pronoun in a sentence, you'll also need to have an antecedent. In this lesson, find out what an antecedent is as well as some of the basic rules for avoiding vague pronoun references and for making sure that you have pronoun-antecedent agreement.
6. Compound Antecedents: Definition & Examples
You may know already that an antecedent and its pronoun must agree in number. In this lesson, you'll learn about compound antecedents and the various rules involving how they can be made to agree with pronouns.
7. Personal Pronouns and Antecedents: Number Agreement
In this lesson, you'll learn how to avoid one of the most common grammatical mistakes in writing by learning how to ensure that all of the antecedents in your writing agree in number with the pronouns that they're matched up with.
8. Action, Linking and Auxiliary Verbs: Definitions, Functions & Examples
Do you think that a verb is just a verb? Check out this lesson to learn about the differences among action verbs, linking verbs, and auxiliary/helping verbs.
9. Verb Forms: Participles & Infinitives
Using verbs correctly involves knowing more than just how to express action in a sentence. This lesson will show you a few special types of verb forms - infinitives, present participles, and past participles - as well as how to use them.
10. Comparison of Adjectives & Adverbs: Examples, Sentences & Exercises
Adjectives and adverbs are descriptive words that allow our sentences to be much more specific and interesting than they would be without them. This lesson covers the rules for using adjectives and adverbs correctly, including those used in comparisons.
11. Indefinite and Definite Articles: Definition and Examples
Watch this video lesson on indefinite and definite articles. Find out when you should use which type of article and when you shouldn't use any article at all.
12. What are Predicates? - Definition and Examples
A predicate is a necessary component of each sentence, so it's important to know what one is and how to identify one. This lesson goes over the basics of predicates as well as how knowing about them can help answer other grammatical questions.
13. Identifying Errors of Verb Tense
In order to identify verb tense errors, you'll need to learn about the six verb tenses and how they differ. Once you know how to look for them, problematic shifts in verb tenses can be spotted and avoided easily.
14. What Are Misplaced Modifiers and Dangling Modifiers?
I have this recurring nightmare where all my modifiers are misplaced or dangling and everybody's laughing at me. Don't let this happen to you! Learn why modifiers are important and why putting them in the right place is even more so.
15. Active and Passive Voice
You may have heard your teachers toss around the terms 'passive voice' and 'active voice'. But if you've never really understood what it means to write actively or passively, stick with us -- and learn how to turn to awkward passive sentences into bright, active ones.
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Other chapters within the ACT Compass English as a Second Language Test: Practice & Study Guide course