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Ch 12: Conditions Affecting the Gastrointestinal System

About This Chapter

Watch video lessons and learn about the anatomy and diseases of the gastrointestinal system. These video lessons are short and engaging and make learning easy!

Conditions Affecting the Gastrointestinal System - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

The video lessons in this chapter cover the anatomy and functions of the organs that make up the gastrointestinal system. You will study diseases and disorders and explore their causes, symptoms and treatments. This chapter can help you understand the following:

  • The composition of the gastrointestinal system and the purpose of each organ
  • Motility disorders and their treatment
  • Conditions that cause malabsorption
  • Types of ulcers
  • Diseases of the gastrointestinal system, their symptoms and treatment

Video Objective
Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach and Autonomic Nervous System Controls Understand the structure of the stomach and autonomic nervous system.
What is the Small Intestine? - Function, Enzymes and Role in Digestion Understand the function of the small intestine.
What is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes and Role in Digestion Understand the function of the pancreas.
The Gallbladder and Liver: Function and Role in Digestion Understand how the gallbladder and liver work in digestion.
General Motility Disorders of the GI Tract Explore issues such as nausea, constipation and vomiting.
Specific Motility Disorders of the GI Tract Explore issues such as hiatal hernia, achalasia and reflux/esophagitis/GERD and their causes.
Malabsorption in the GI Tract Learn about absorption issues such as celiac disease and its impact on the body.
Peptic Ulcer Disease: Types, Causes and Treatments Examine the causes of gastric and duodenal ulcers and treatments.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Ulcerative Colitis Explore the causes, symptoms and treatment for ulcerative colitis.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Crohn's Disease Explore the causes, symptoms and treatment for Crohn's disease.
Icterus: The Major Causes of Jaundice Learn the causes of prehepatic and posthepatic jaundice.
The Major Causes of Liver Disease Explore the factors (toxins, lifestyle choices, infectious agents) that may cause liver disease.
Viral Hepatitis: Causes, Signs and Treatments Explore the types of hepatitis and their consequences for the liver.
Cirrhosis: Definition, Causes and Treatments Get information on the characteristics and causes of this liver disease along with some treatment options.
Gallbladder Disease: Major Causes, Consequences and Treatments Learn the function of the gallbladder and examine the conditions and diseases that can affect it and their options for treatment.
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: Causes and Treatments Examine this condition and its link to cystic fibrosis; explore nutritional remedies.
Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis: Causes, Signs and Treatments Define acute and chronic pancreatitis and how it affects the body.
Colorectal Cancer: Risk Factors and Treatment Learn the risk factors for colorectal cancer along with how it is diagnosed and treated.

24 Lessons in Chapter 12: Conditions Affecting the Gastrointestinal System
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach and Autonomic Nervous System Controls

1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach and Autonomic Nervous System Controls

Digestion begins in the mouth but continues in the stomach. Explore the anatomy and physiology of the stomach, like the pyloric sphincter, rugae, mucosa, and gastric pits and glands, and learn how the automatic nervous system controls them.

Physiology of the Stomach and Gastric Juices

2. Physiology of the Stomach and Gastric Juices

The stomach is a sac that contains different gastric juices, acids, and enzymes that help break down food and digest it. Learn about the physiology of the stomach, the different gastric juices, and the process of digestion inside the stomach.

What is the Small Intestine? - Anatomy and Functions

3. What is the Small Intestine? - Anatomy and Functions

The small intestine is the section of the digestive tract where most food digestion and nutrient absorption occurs. Learn about the anatomy of the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, & ileum), the basic functions of each section, and the importance of Peyer's Patches in removing bacteria from the small intestine.

What Is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes & Role in Digestion

4. What Is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes & Role in Digestion

The pancreas is an important digestive organ that produces a variety of digestive enzymes to break down food in the small intestine. Learn about the function of the pancreas, pancreatic enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, & carboxypeptidase), pancreatic amylase & lipase, and the role of the pancreas in digestion.

The Gallbladder & Liver: Function & Role in Digestion

5. The Gallbladder & Liver: Function & Role in Digestion

The liver and the gallbladder are internal organs that aid the digestive system in breaking down food and regulating digestive enzymes. Learn about the functions of the liver and the gallbladder and the different hormones and enzymes produced by each organ.

General Motility Disorders: Nausea and Vomiting

6. General Motility Disorders: Nausea and Vomiting

Nausea and vomiting can be the result of common issues like overeating or drinking, but can also be linked to more serious internal issues. Learn more about general gastric disorders, how they occur, and treatments.

General Motility Disorders: Diarrhea and Constipation

7. General Motility Disorders: Diarrhea and Constipation

General motility disorders are characterized by digestive problems such as diarrhea or constipation. Gain an understanding of the different types of diarrhea such as osmotic and secretory, common causes of diarrhea and constipation, and potential treatments for each disorder.

Specific Motility Disorders of the GI Tract

8. Specific Motility Disorders of the GI Tract

Motility disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract refer to problems with the contraction of muscles that enable humans to digest food and remove waste from the body. Learn about GI tract muscular contraction disorders specific to the esophagus, including peristalsis, achalasia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, and the causes of heartburn.

Malabsorption in the GI Tract

9. Malabsorption in the GI Tract

Malabsorption occurs when the small intestine does not absorb food properly. Learn about malabsorption in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, malabsorption due to pathogens, the role of autoimmune diseases, and other causes of malabsorption.

What Is Pernicious Anemia? - The Loss of Intrinsic Factor

10. What Is Pernicious Anemia? - The Loss of Intrinsic Factor

Pernicious anemia is a blood disorder characterized by the body's inability to process vitamin B12. Learn how the loss of intrinsic factor is a major problem, discover how the body absorbs vitamin B12, and explore the signs, symptoms, diagnostics, treatments, and facts about this disease.

Peptic Ulcer Disease: Types, Causes, and Treatments

11. Peptic Ulcer Disease: Types, Causes, and Treatments

Peptic ulcer disease is characterized by a defect in the gastric or duodenal mucosa and extends to the submucosa. Examine the different types of peptic ulcer disease, common causes, and potential treatment options.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Ulcerative Colitis

12. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease affecting the mucosa layer of the intestines. Learn about ulcerative colitis, including its clinical signs, symptoms, diagnostics, and treatment, as well as the difference between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Crohn's Disease

13. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Crohn's Disease

Inflammatory bowel disease, also called Crohn's disease, is a serious gastrointestinal condition that causes symptoms such as vomiting, weight loss and abdominal pain. Learn more about Crohn's disease as well as how it occurs in the body, and discover common clinical signs, symptoms and treatments.

Appendicitis: Signs and Treatment

14. Appendicitis: Signs and Treatment

Appendicitis involves inflammation of the appendix, and this condition is most often associated with younger people. Explore the potential causes, signs, symptoms, diagnostics, and treatment options for this condition.

Diverticulitis: Cause, Signs & Treatments

15. Diverticulitis: Cause, Signs & Treatments

Diverticulitis is a condition that comes from fiber and muscle weakness due to age, stresses, and strains. Explore common causes, signs, and treatment options for colonic diverticula.

Icterus:  The Major Causes of Jaundice

16. Icterus: The Major Causes of Jaundice

The liver can be an indicator of icterus, the technical term for jaundice, which is a yellowing of the skin and the whites of one's eyes. Learn about the major causes of jaundice, the differences between conjugated and unconjugated increases in bilirubin, and the importance urine and stool have in the diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemia.

The Major Causes of Liver Disease

17. The Major Causes of Liver Disease

The liver is an extremely important organ. Discover the body's purpose for the liver, major types and causes of liver disease, common symptoms, and physical exams or blood tests that can help diagnose liver disease.

Viral Hepatitis: Causes, Signs and Treatments

18. Viral Hepatitis: Causes, Signs and Treatments

Viral hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver due to a virus. Learn the definition and causes of viral hepatitis, how to name the different types, the consequences, and how it's diagnosed and treated.

Cirrhosis: Definition, Causes & Treatments

19. Cirrhosis: Definition, Causes & Treatments

Cirrhosis is the late-stage hepatic fibrosis, or scarring, of the liver. Learn the definition of cirrhosis and its causes, including alcoholism, hepatitis B or C infection, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and explore the consequences and treatments.

Gallbladder Disease: Major Causes, Consequences, and Treatments

20. Gallbladder Disease: Major Causes, Consequences, and Treatments

Cholelithiasis, which is characterized by the formation of gallstones, is one of the major gallbladder diseases. Learn about the major causes and consequences of cholelithiasis, when it is necessary to receive treatment, and treatment options.

Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: Causes and Treatments

21. Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: Causes and Treatments

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is a disease process that causes a deficiency of exocrine pancreatic enzymes, leading to the improper digestion of food. Learn about exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, what the exocrine pancreas does, clinical signs and symptoms of pancreatic insufficiency, and the causes, diagnostics, and treatment.

Acute & Chronic Pancreatitis: Causes, Signs & Treatments

22. Acute & Chronic Pancreatitis: Causes, Signs & Treatments

Inflammation of the pancreas is defined as pancreatitis and can be acute or chronic. Learn how the exocrine pancreas works, discover why pancreatitis occurs, and understand common signs and symptoms that can lead to diagnosis and treatment.

Colorectal Cancer:  Risk Factors and Treatment

23. Colorectal Cancer: Risk Factors and Treatment

Colorectal cancer is a malignant tumor of the large intestine's colon and/or rectum. Learn about colorectal cancer, the warning signs before cancer, the risk factors for colorectal cancer, and its diagnosis and treatment.

Diagnosis of Abdominal Pain: The Four Quadrants

24. Diagnosis of Abdominal Pain: The Four Quadrants

When diagnosing possible sources of abdominal pain, it is important to first nail down the precise location of the pain. Discover the four quadrants and the midline sections of the abdomen, and gain an understanding of what organs lie in each section of the abdomen.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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More Exams
There are even more practice exams available in Conditions Affecting the Gastrointestinal System.
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