About This Chapter
Conditions Affecting the Gastrointestinal System - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The video lessons in this chapter cover the anatomy and functions of the organs that make up the gastrointestinal system. You will study diseases and disorders and explore their causes, symptoms and treatments. This chapter can help you understand the following:
- The composition of the gastrointestinal system and the purpose of each organ
- Motility disorders and their treatment
- Conditions that cause malabsorption
- Types of ulcers
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal system, their symptoms and treatment
|Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach and Autonomic Nervous System Controls||Understand the structure of the stomach and autonomic nervous system.|
|What is the Small Intestine? - Function, Enzymes and Role in Digestion||Understand the function of the small intestine.|
|What is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes and Role in Digestion||Understand the function of the pancreas.|
|The Gallbladder and Liver: Function and Role in Digestion||Understand how the gallbladder and liver work in digestion.|
|General Motility Disorders of the GI Tract||Explore issues such as nausea, constipation and vomiting.|
|Specific Motility Disorders of the GI Tract||Explore issues such as hiatal hernia, achalasia and reflux/esophagitis/GERD and their causes.|
|Malabsorption in the GI Tract||Learn about absorption issues such as celiac disease and its impact on the body.|
|Peptic Ulcer Disease: Types, Causes and Treatments||Examine the causes of gastric and duodenal ulcers and treatments.|
|Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Ulcerative Colitis||Explore the causes, symptoms and treatment for ulcerative colitis.|
|Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Crohn's Disease||Explore the causes, symptoms and treatment for Crohn's disease.|
|Icterus: The Major Causes of Jaundice||Learn the causes of prehepatic and posthepatic jaundice.|
|The Major Causes of Liver Disease||Explore the factors (toxins, lifestyle choices, infectious agents) that may cause liver disease.|
|Viral Hepatitis: Causes, Signs and Treatments||Explore the types of hepatitis and their consequences for the liver.|
|Cirrhosis: Definition, Causes and Treatments||Get information on the characteristics and causes of this liver disease along with some treatment options.|
|Gallbladder Disease: Major Causes, Consequences and Treatments||Learn the function of the gallbladder and examine the conditions and diseases that can affect it and their options for treatment.|
|Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: Causes and Treatments||Examine this condition and its link to cystic fibrosis; explore nutritional remedies.|
|Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis: Causes, Signs and Treatments||Define acute and chronic pancreatitis and how it affects the body.|
|Colorectal Cancer: Risk Factors and Treatment||Learn the risk factors for colorectal cancer along with how it is diagnosed and treated.|
1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach and Autonomic Nervous System Controls
In this lesson, you will learn how the unique anatomy of the stomach - including rugae, gastric pits and gastric glands - makes it a perfect organ for digestion. You will also learn how the autonomic nervous system controls digestion.
2. Physiology of the Stomach and Gastric Juices
When food enters your stomach, it is mechanically broken down by a process called churning. In this lesson you will learn about this process and the chemical break down of proteins within the stomach by the enzyme pepsin.
3. What is the Small Intestine? - Anatomy and Functions
In this lesson, you will learn about the three divisions of the small intestine - the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. You will also gain an understanding of the basic functions of each of these sections, including their role in removing bacteria.
4. What Is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes & Role in Digestion
Your pancreas plays an important role in the digestion of food. In this lesson, you will learn about the enzymes found in pancreatic juice that allow your body to break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
5. The Gallbladder & Liver: Function & Role in Digestion
Bile is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. In this lesson, you will learn about bile and its role in the breakdown of dietary fats. You will also learn how the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin help regulate these organs.
6. General Motility Disorders: Nausea and Vomiting
This lesson will explain what nausea, vomiting, and regurgitation are. We'll also explain how and why nausea and vomiting occur, how they can be treated, and a few other fun facts!
7. General Motility Disorders: Diarrhea and Constipation
This lesson will discuss diarrhea and constipation. More interestingly, we'll actually discuss the many different forms of diarrhea, such as osmotic and secretory. We'll also learn what melena and hematochezia mean.
8. Specific Motility Disorders of the GI Tract
This lesson will describe specific motility disorders related to the stomach and esophagus. We'll discuss GERD, achalasia, a hiatal hernia, esophagitis, proton pump inhibitors, and many other interesting concepts.
9. Malabsorption in the GI Tract
We will cover the major causes and processes of malabsorption in the GI tract and how they may connect with one another in different ways. This will include taking a look at the organs of the GI tract and their respective diseases.
10. What Is Pernicious Anemia? - The Loss of Intrinsic Factor
This lesson will describe pernicious anemia. We'll first describe how vitamin B12 is normally absorbed and then what can go wrong, how it can be diagnosed, and treated.
11. Peptic Ulcer Disease: Types, Causes, and Treatments
This lesson will discuss peptic ulcer disease and why and where it occurs. For instance, we'll go into gastrin, parietal cells, a famous bacterium, NSAIDs, gastritis, and much more!
12. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Ulcerative Colitis
This lesson will discuss an inflammatory bowel disease known as ulcerative colitis. We will review the reasons for its occurrence and most importantly how it differs from another IBD known as Crohn's disease.
13. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Crohn's Disease
This lesson will discuss one of the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease, known as Crohn's disease. We'll discuss where it occurs, why it may occur, and how something known as cobalamin is important.
14. Appendicitis: Signs and Treatment
This lesson will discuss a famous condition called appendicitis. It will describe for you the potential causes of this condition, whom it's most likely to affect, and which clinical signs and symptoms to look out for.
15. Diverticulitis: Cause, Signs & Treatments
This lesson will discuss how age, fiber, and muscle weakness plays a role in a condition called diverticulitis. We'll also cover what diagnostic tests can be run and which treatment options may be employed.
16. Icterus: The Major Causes of Jaundice
This lesson will discuss the major causes of icterus, also known as jaundice. We'll define conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin, when each one may increase, how urine and stool samples may be important, and a whole lot more!
17. The Major Causes of Liver Disease
This lesson will quickly go over what the liver is for and how it may be damaged. Then we'll focus in on how liver damage can be looked for through a physical exam or by way of blood tests.
18. Viral Hepatitis: Causes, Signs and Treatments
This lesson will discuss the different types of viruses that cause viral hepatitis as well as their different characteristics. We will also talk about what kind of harm these viruses bring and how a person can be treated.
19. Cirrhosis: Definition, Causes & Treatments
This lesson will discuss cirrhosis, why it may occur, what it looks like, and how it may be treated. Additionally, you'll learn about fibrosis, hypertension, and what signs to look for on diagnostic tests.
20. Gallbladder Disease: Major Causes, Consequences, and Treatments
This lesson will explore common diseases and conditions associated with the gallbladder, including cholecystitis, cholangitis, and cholelithiasis. This lesson will also cover the major types of gallstones and why they may form.
21. Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: Causes and Treatments
This lesson will discuss a disorder known as exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, the major causes of its development, clinical signs to look out for, and treatment options.
22. Acute & Chronic Pancreatitis: Causes, Signs & Treatments
This lesson will discuss pancreatitis. We'll go over what a normal pancreas is supposed to do and what goes on during pancreatitis. We'll briefly touch upon its diagnosis and treatment as well.
23. Colorectal Cancer: Risk Factors and Treatment
This lesson will discuss colorectal cancer, adenocarcinoma, and adenomas. We will talk about the early warning signs that someone may develop colorectal cancer as well as diagnostic and treatment strategies.
24. Diagnosis of Abdominal Pain: The Four Quadrants
This lesson will discuss the major points of the four-quadrant approach to diagnosing abdominal pain. While every possible permutation of pain in the abdomen won't be covered, you will come out with a good understanding as to what a problem may be.
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Other chapters within the Pathophysiology Textbook course
- The Basic Components of Pathophysiology
- The Consequences of an Aberrant Immune System
- The Pathophysiology of Neoplasia
- Skin Related Pathology
- Trauma and Injury to the Nervous System
- Major Disorders Involving the Nervous System
- Congenital Cardiovascular Defects
- Acquired Cardiovascular Abnormalities
- Pathologies of the Respiratory System
- Important Renal Anatomy and Physiology
- Diseases of the Urinary System
- Metabolic Derangements
- Blood Disorders: Anemia
- Hematological Maladies
- Blood Cancers
- Alterations of the Musculoskeletal System
- Reproductive System Disorders
- Clinical Test Results: Electrolytes, Cells, and Blood Proteins
- Clinical Test Results: Organ Function and Health