About This Chapter
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- Start at the beginning, or identify the topics that you need help with.
- Watch and learn from fun videos, reviewing as needed.
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- Submit questions to one of our instructors for personalized support if you need extra help.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Corrections and Correctional Institutions chapter exam.
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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- What are some of the pros and cons of probation and parole?
- How do jails and prisons maintain security?
- What is the deprivation model, and how does it relate to prison subculture?
- How do men's and women's prisons differ from each other?
- What effect have some legal precedents had on prisoners' rights?
- How do prison riots start, and what are the major stages?
1. History of Corrections & its Impact on Modern Concepts
Today's corrections system is much different than the early punishment system. This lesson outlines the historical development of the United States' corrections system and explains its impact on modern concepts.
2. Probation & Parole: Overview, History & Purposes
More offenders are sentenced to probation and parole than are sentenced to incarceration. This lesson explains the history and purpose of probation and parole, including the difference between the two.
3. Prisons: History, Characteristics & Purpose
Today's prisons bear little resemblance to those of years past. This lesson outlines the historical development of United States' prisons and explains the main characteristics and purposes of American prisons.
4. Jails in the U.S.: Role & Administrative Issues
Jails are one means of incarceration used in the U.S. criminal justice system. This lesson explains the role of jails, the difference between jails and prisons, and some challenges jail administrators face.
5. Custody & Security in Correctional Facilities
There are many different types of correctional facilities. Prisons and other facilities are operated at various levels of security, ranging from minimum to maximum. This lesson explains the custody and security in various types of correctional facilities.
6. Prison Subcultures & the Deprivation Model
Prison inmates often develop prison subcultures consisting of a shared system of customs and beliefs. This lesson explains prison subcultures and explores possible theories for how and why those subcultures develop.
7. Prisoners: Characteristics of U.S. Inmate Populations
The Bureau of Justice Statistics, or BJS, collects, analyzes and publishes data relating to crime in the United States. This lesson discusses BJS data regarding the characteristics of prison inmate populations, including age, gender and race.
8. Differences Between Men's & Women's Prisons
In the United States, most prison inmates are male. For that reason, there are more men's prisons than women's prisons and more services geared toward male inmates. This lesson explains the main differences between men's and women's prisons.
9. The Causes & Stages of Prison Riots
A prison riot is organized and combined defiance or disorder by a group of prisoners. Riots are usually meant to force a change in the prison or express some sort of grievance. This lesson explains the causes and stages of prison riots.
10. Prisoners' Rights: Legal Aspects & Court Precedent
Prisoners have certain legal rights and privileges guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Federal and state laws govern prisoners' rights. This lesson explains basic prisoners' rights, including major court cases and federal legislation.
11. Major Problems, Issues & Trends Facing Prisons Today
There are several problems, issues, and trends facing prisons today. This lesson addresses three major prison matters: overcrowding, mental health care, and privatization.
12. Prison Labor: Pros & Cons
In this lesson we will discuss how prison labor is used within institutional operations, the types of jobs inmates might work, the salary ranges of inmates, how work is used to rehabilitate inmates, and the general pros and cons concerning the use of inmate labor.
13. Prison Privatization: Pros & Cons
Private prisons are growing in number across the United States. Some people are in favor of private prisons and some are opposed. In this lesson, we define prison privatization and examine its pros and cons.
14. What is a Probation Officer? - Job Description, Duties & Requirements
So, you think that you want to be a probation officer? A probation officer is an individual who meets with adults or juveniles who have been placed on probation by an order of the court because of a conviction for a criminal offense. It is your duty to ensure that the client fulfills all of the requirements ordered by the court and remains law abiding. A probation officer has many duties and must meet certain requirements to work in this field.
15. What is an Infraction? - Definition, Meaning & Examples
In this lesson, we will learn about the least serious offense in our justice system, an infraction. We will also look at some examples of infractions and compare infractions to the more serious offenses of misdemeanors and felonies.
16. Operational Capacity: Definition & Factors
In this lesson we will define operational capacity as it relates to correctional institutions and explore how prison design, prison staff, and inmate needs are all taken into consideration when determining the operational capacity of a prison.
17. Preventive Detention: Definition & Laws
What happens to a criminal after the crime but before the trial? This lesson will define preventive detention, and cover legal history of its use in the justice system.
18. Motivational Interviewing: Techniques & Training
Motivational interviewing is a unique approach to counseling that empowers clients. The counselor is a partner in a process that enables the client to lead and change.
19. Solitary Confinement: Definition & Effects
In this lesson, we'll define and discuss solitary confinement and the situations in which it is employed. We'll also discuss the effect it has on prisoners and recent challenges made to its widespread use.
20. Conditional Release: Definition & Overview
Getting out of jail early is something many prisoners dream about. Conditional release allows for the early release of a prisoner, but it also gives the prisoner similar rights and responsibilities of a parolee.
21. Reintegration: Definition, Model & Programs
In this lesson, we will discuss the definition of reintegration as it pertains to criminal justice. We'll also explore a broad conceptual model of how reintegration works as well as some of the programs that are a part of the reintegration process.
22. Criminal Rehabilitation: Programs, Statistics & Definition
Criminal rehabilitation is part of many prison programs. The idea being that not everyone is just born bad, but instead they are environmentally conditioned to make bad choices which can be fixed.
23. Absolute Discharge: Definition & Overview
An absolute discharge is a sentence that can be given in the Canadian court system to minor offenders that the judge does not feel jail time or probation is necessary.
24. Conditional Discharge: Definition & Overview
Conditional discharge is a legal judgment that essentially states that a defendant is guilty of a minor crime; however, the defendant is not formally convicted and the judgment is removed from the individual's record after a period of time as long as various conditions are met.
25. Community-Based Corrections: Programs & Types
Learn what constitutes community-based corrections programs and discover why there was an increase in these programs in the 1960's. Examine the different types of community-based corrections programs and gain a thorough understanding of these programs.
26. Prison Gangs: History, Types & Statistics
This lesson will discuss the history of prison gangs. The lesson will also identify the different types of prison gangs and the statistics of gangs within the prison.
27. Prison Overcrowding: Statistics, Causes & Effects
This lesson will discuss the statistics of overcrowding. We will also cover the causes and effects of prison overcrowding. There will be a quiz at the end of the lesson.
28. Prison Reform: History, Issues & Movement
Since colonial times people have fought to improve the conditions of prisoners in the United States. This lesson will discuss the history of prison reform, the improvements reformers have fought for, and the groups that have been instrumental in the struggle.
29. Prison Reformer Elizabeth Fry: Biography & Facts
We will discuss Elizabeth Fry and how she started the movement to reform prisons and help the less fortunate. After the lesson, there will be a quiz to test your knowledge.
30. Prison Security: Levels & Characteristics
Prison security has different levels and different characteristics and this lesson will discuss this. There will also be a short quiz at the end of the lesson to test your knowledge.
31. Prison Violence: Types, Causes & Statistics
Violence can occur within the prison system. There are several types of violence within a prison and various reasons why violence can take place. In this lesson, learn about types, causes, and statistics about violence within prisons.
32. Recidivism: Definition, Causes & Prevention
Once you have completed this lesson, you will understand what constitutes recidivism. You will review the definition of recidivism and examine the causes. In addition, you will look at the prevention of recidivism.
33. Shock Incarceration: Definition & Programs
One type of incarceration is shock incarceration and this lesson will define exactly what that is. The lesson will also discuss the different shock incarceration programs available to offenders.
34. Specific Deterrence: Definition & Examples
Specific deterrence is a method of punishment in the criminal justice system intended to discourage criminal behavior in the specific individual charged with the crime. In this lesson, you will be introduced to this concept.
35. Standard & Special Conditions of Probation
This lesson will discuss probation. We will define probation and discuss standard probation and probation with special conditions. There will be a quiz at the end of the lesson.
36. Alternatives to Incarceration: Programs & Treatment
In this lesson we will consider alternatives to incarceration, how they deviate from the traditional model of incarceration, and how they offer cost-saving options to the criminal justice system. We will examine several examples of alternatives to incarceration and explain the types of offenders most often targeted by these programs.
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Other chapters within the Intro to Criminal Justice: Help and Review course
- Introduction to Crime & Criminology: Help and Review
- Theories of Crime: Help and Review
- Types of Crime: Help and Review
- The Criminal Justice Field: Help and Review
- Criminal Justice Agencies in the U.S.: Help and Review
- Law Enforcement in the U.S.: Help and Review
- The Role of the Police Department: Help and Review
- The U.S. Court System: Help and Review
- Constitutional Law in the U.S.: Help and Review
- Criminal Law in the U.S.: Help and Review
- The Criminal Trial in the U.S. Justice System: Help and Review
- The Sentencing Process in Criminal Justice: Help and Review
- The Juvenile Justice System: Help and Review