About This Chapter
Covalent Bonds - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, our expert and professional instructors will help you review the different types of covalent bonds. You can learn more about molecular orbital theory diagrams and the rules for chemical and hydrogen bonds. Additional lessons help you review the properties and differences between weak and strong intermolecular forces. After reviewing these lessons, you should be able to:
- Give examples of single covalent bonds and compounds
- Identify the differences between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds
- Review the importance of bond strength and bond energy
- Understand the types and formation of hydrogen and hydrocarbon bonds
- Explain how to draw Lewis dot structures and how the VSEPR theory applies to these diagrams
- Describe metallic bonding
- Analyze the valence bond theory and hybridization
- List causes of variable valency
Our instructors go through the details of covalent bonds to help you master these chemistry topics. After watching the engaging lessons, take the corresponding quizzes to assess your understanding. As you are studying through the chapter, keep in mind that our instructors are available if you have any questions.
1. Single Covalent Bond: Definition & Examples
Single covalent bonds hold much of the world together. When atoms meet in just the right way with just the right needs, they will form a single covalent bond, an arrangement that holds the two atoms together and gives them lower energy than they would have if apart.
2. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character
Learn about covalent bonds and their two types: nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds. Discover how to predict the type of bond that will form based on the periodic table. Learn what ionic character means and how to determine it.
3. Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams
Learn how to sketch the overlap of orbitals to form sigma and pi bonds. Use the molecular orbital theory to determine bond order. Discover how bond order affects bond strength and bond energy.
4. Hydrogen Bonds: Definition, Types & Formation
Hydrogen bonds are electromagnetic attractions between the positive and negative poles of atoms. These bonds are weak and easily broken, but account for many of the important properties of things like water and DNA.
5. What is Hydrocarbon? - Definition, Formula & Compounds
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that are made of only hydrogen and carbon atoms. They are found in many places, including crude oil and natural gas. Learn the different forms of these simple, yet varied, organic compounds.
6. Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation
Learn about covalent bonds, how covalent compounds are formed and the properties inherent to covalent compounds, such as low melting and boiling points, in this lesson. Also, learn what rules to follow to name simple covalent compounds.
7. Lewis Dot Structures: Resonance
In this lesson, we'll review Lewis dot structures and how to draw them. Then, learn about resonance and resonance structures for molecules and polyatomic ions. Afterwards, assess your new knowledge with a quiz.
8. Variable Valency & Covalency in Chemistry
In this lesson, we first review the meaning of valence and covalence for the elements. We then describe how some elements can have multiple different valences and covalences. In other words, some elements do not always form the same number of bonds or have the same charge (if they form ions). We will explain the differences for several elements and some of the compounds they form, and how this relates to atomic structure.
9. Fajans' Rules for Chemical Bonds
This lesson will talk about polarization of ionic compounds and Fajans' rules. Fajans' rules discuss introduction of covalent character in ionic compounds and how some properties of ionic compounds change because of polarization.
10. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors
Learn why metallic bonding is called the electron sea model. Discover why metals bond the way they do and why they are shiny, malleable and conduct electricity well.
11. London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces
Learn how London dispersion forces are created and what effect they have on properties such as boiling and melting points. Discover this weak intermolecular force and how it is one of the Van der Waals forces.
12. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces
Learn about intermolecular vs. intramolecular forces. Learn the different intermolecular bonds (including hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole and ion-dipole forces), their strengths, and their effects on properties, such as boiling and melting points, solubility, and evaporation.
13. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes
In this lesson, you'll learn about the VSEPR theory and how it can be used to explain molecule shapes. Then, learn how to predict the shape of a molecule by applying the VSEPR theory to the Lewis dot structure.
14. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape
You'll learn how to explain how shapes of molecules can be predicted using valence bond theory and hybridization. When finished, you'll understand the difference between sigma and pi bonds and how the VSEPR theory, along with the hybridization theory, helps predict the shape of a molecule.
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Other chapters within the ISC Chemistry: Study Guide & Syllabus course
- Basic Concepts of Chemistry
- Measurement in Chemistry
- Atomic Structure & Models
- Periodic Table & Periodicity
- Representative Elements
- Compounds of Element Groups
- Types of Chemical Bonding
- Characteristics of Gases
- Properties of Colloids
- Rates of Chemical Reactions
- Heat, Work & Energy
- Redox Reactions
- Organic Compounds in Chemistry
- Chemical Reaction Mechanisms
- Aliphatic & Aromatic Hydrocarbons
- Everyday Chemistry
- Chemistry & the Environment
- Relative Molecular Mass & Mole
- Solid State Structure & Properties
- Chemical Dynamics & Reaction Rates
- Chemical Equilibria
- Ionic Equilibria
- Electrochemistry & Voltaic Cells
- Coordination Compounds
- Chemistry of p-Block Elements
- Chemistry of Transition & Inner-Transition Elements
- Alkyl & Aryl Halides
- Alcohols & Phenols
- Ethers & Carbonyl Compounds
- Cyanides, Isocyanides & Nitro Compounds
- Polymer Basics
- Types of Biomolecules
- ISC Chemistry Flashcards