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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:
- How did the American law system get its start?
- What is the nature and purpose of criminal law?
- How is public law different from private law?
- How do criminal and civil law differ?
- What are key differences between substantive and procedural law?
1. American Law: History & Origins from English Common Law
Our modern American law system is based on centuries of English principles regarding right and wrong. This English common law system combines with U.S. case decisions and statutes to form what we know as law. This lesson examines the origins and definitions associated with the American law system.
2. What Is the Rule of Law? - Definition & Principle
Rule of law takes on several meanings. On one hand, it means that no person or government is above the law. In another, it means that no government or its officials can enforce laws that are unfair or unjust.
3. Public Law vs. Private Law: Definitions and Differences
The simple difference between public and private law is in those that each affects. Public law affects society as a whole, while private law affects individuals, families, businesses and small groups.
4. Criminal Law vs. Civil Law: Definitions and Differences
There are two main classifications of law. Criminal laws regulate crimes, or wrongs committed against the government. Civil laws regulate disputes between private parties. This lesson explains the main differences between criminal and civil law.
5. Substantive Law vs. Procedural Law: Definitions and Differences
Substantive law and procedural law work together to ensure that in a criminal or civil case, the appropriate laws are applied and the proper procedures are followed to bring a case to trial. In this lesson, we'll discuss the differences between the two and how they relate to the legal system as a whole.
6. Concurrence: Legal Definition & Exceptions
Concurrence in the law is the requirement that a guilty mental state coincide with a guilty act. Learn about the general elements of a crime and the theory of concurrence as it relates to criminal law.
7. Restraining Order: Definition & Process
A restraining order, sometimes known as a protection order, is designed to make it illegal for an individual to make contact with another person or persons. It is most often used in cases of domestic dispute, such as domestic violence or divorce.
8. Indictable Offense: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we will learn about the meaning of an indictable offense. We will also review examples of indictable offenses and consider possible penalties for someone convicted of this type of offense.
9. Intoxication & Law: Definition & Overview
Intoxication is a legal defense that may be used to prove that a criminal defendant lacked the required guilty mental state to be convicted of a crime. This lesson provides a general definition of intoxication and an introduction to how the defense is used.
10. Banishment: Definition & Laws
Banishment is a form of punishment that exiles a criminal defendant from a city, county, or state. In this lesson, you will be introduced to the historic concept of banishment and explore its modern application.
11. Currency Transaction Report: Rules
In this lesson we will review the requirements surrounding Currency Transaction Reports. We will also examine the exceptions to the rule and show how to avoid accidentally committing a crime involving these reports.
12. Reasonable Force in Law: Definition & Concepts
Reasonable force is used to prove that a person charged with a crime or facing civil liability was acting in self-defense. This lesson will introduce you to the concept of reasonable force through definitions and examples.
13. Codified Law: Definition & History
Codified law refers to the rules of a society that have been collected and recorded for the purpose of establishing civil order. In this lesson, you will be introduced to the process of codification, as well as its history and modern application.
14. Prior Restraint in Law: Definition & Exceptions
Prior restraint is a form of unconstitutional government censorship occurring before the speech is made. This lesson provides an introduction to prior restraint and illustrates some of the ways in which the government censors expression.
15. Bail Reform Act of 1984
The Bail Reform Act of 1984, which clarified and replaced certain provisions of the Bail Reform Act of 1966, identifies what a judge must consider when determining conditions of pretrial release.
16. Nolle Prosequi: Definition & Meaning
Nolle prosequi is a legal term and statement made in court and reflected upon in court records whereby the plaintiff or prosecutor wishes not to proceed any further in a suit or action. This lesson provides an overview of the definition, meaning, and legal implications of nolle prosequi.
17. Vehicular Homicide in Law: Definition, Sentence & Statistics
In this lesson, we'll define vehicular homicide, examine how criminal sentences can vary greatly from one jurisdiction to another, and look at some national vehicular homicide statistics.
18. Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988
The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 was created as part of the Federal government's 'War on Drugs.' It sought to increase penalties for those who were involved in the sale and use of illegal narcotics.
19. Self-Defense: Definition & Laws
Self-defense, with respect to criminal law, involves the justified use of force to protect oneself from harm. Find out in this lesson when, how, and where one can defend oneself under the law.
20. Proximate Cause: Definition, Examples & Criminology
Proximate cause is a legal concept that relates to the connection between an injury and the event that caused the injury. This lesson discusses the basic definition of proximate cause and provides some examples of the concept.
21. Lex Talionis: Definition & History
''Lex talionis'' is a legal concept of retribution. In this lesson, we will define the concept, understand some of the historical context, and give some modern examples.
22. What is a Statute? - Definition & Laws
What is a statute? Where does a statute come from, and how does it intersect with other types of laws, such as constitutions and case law? Find out the basics about statutes in this lesson.
23. What is a Conspiracy in Law? - Definition, Meaning & Examples
What does it take for a plot among people to become the crime of conspiracy? There are four elements that must be met. Check out this lesson to learn the basics of criminal conspiracy.
24. Mitigating Circumstances in Law: Definition, Meaning & Examples
Mitigating circumstances are factors in the commission of a crime that lessen or reduce its moral and legal consequences. These factors are weighed during sentencing against aggravating factors that may increase the penalty for a crime.
25. Criminal Procedure Rules: Definition, Laws & Examples
In this lesson, you will be introduced to rules of criminal procedure. This lesson also covers the administration of criminal justice and provides examples of the application of the laws of criminal procedure.
26. Stop and Frisk: Law, Statistics and Cases
This lesson will discuss stop and frisk laws. We will review a landmark case and statistics about stop and frisk. At the end of the lesson, there will be a quiz to test your knowledge.
27. Strict Liability: Definition, Crimes & Examples
This lesson will teach you what constitutes a strict liability crime. Review the definition of strict liability and examine the various types of strict liability crimes. Then, look at some examples to gain a better understanding of this type of crime.
28. Strict Scrutiny: Definition & Test
After you finish this lesson, you will have an understanding of what constitutes strict scrutiny. Moreover, you will review the strict scrutiny test and gain a further understanding.
29. Substantive Criminal Law: Definition & Development
Substantive criminal law is interpreted through a body of rules that dictate what a crime is and how punishment for a crime is administered. Learn more about it in this lesson.
30. The Castle Doctrine: Definition, Law & Cases
This lesson discusses the concept known as the Castle Doctrine. You will learn what the Castle Doctrine is, get an overview of the Castle Doctrine in different states and review some controversial cases that have resulted from it.
31. The Color of Law: Definition, Violations & the Deprivation of Rights
Find out who the color of law applies to and how it protects rights covered in the US Constitution. Get examples of violations and learn about real cases where rights have been deprived under the color of law, then take a quiz to test your knowledge.
32. What Is a Polygraph Test? - History, Reliability & Accuracy
In this lesson, you'll learn what a polygraph test is and go over a brief history of the polygraph test. You'll also briefly review the reliability of the test and discover how accurate it is determined to be by the courts.
33. What Is a Warrant? - Definition & Examples
This lesson will teach you about warrants. Initially, we'll learn what constitutes a warrant and learn what an arrest warrant and a search warrant are, including their basic differences. Then we'll review some examples of each one.
34. What is Adjudication? - Definition, Process & Services
Learn what constitutes adjudication. Review the definition of adjudication. Examine the adjudication process and review the services available for an adjudication. Then test your knowledge with a quiz!
35. What Is Administrative Law? - Definition & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn about administrative law. After completing the lesson, you will understand what constitutes administrative law, how administrative law works, and some examples of administrative law proceedings.
36. What is an Indictment? - Definition, Process & Example
After you finish this lesson, you will understand what an indictment is and what the process is for an indictment to be issued. In addition, you will review an indictment example.
37. What is an Injunction? - Definition, Types, Process & Example
After completing this lesson, you will know what constitutes an injunction. Additionally, you will understand the different kinds of injunctions, as well as the general requirements and procedures for obtaining an injunction. Finally, you will review an example of this legal process.
38. What Is Community Policing? - Definition, History & Strategies
After you complete this lesson, you should know more about how the method of community policing works. Moreover, you should understand the history and the strategies involved in the philosophy of community policing.
39. What Is Criminal Justice? - Definition, Fields & Theories
Learn what constitutes criminal justice. Review the definition of criminal justice, as well as its various fields. Finally, examine criminal justice theories.
40. What is Criminal Law? - Definition, Purpose, Types & Cases
In this lesson, learn what constitutes criminal law, examine the types of criminal law, and review significant criminal cases to gain an understanding of criminal law in the United States today.
41. Racial Discrimination in the US Criminal Justice System
Racial discrimination is a complicated subject when it comes to criminal justice. Through this lesson, you will explore the various ways in which race influences the decisions and judgements made in the American criminal justice system.
42. What is a No Contact Order? - Definition, Examples & Rules
At times situations arise in which individuals become vulnerable and need legal protection from other individuals. This lesson will look at no contact orders, when they are warranted, and provide examples of situations in which they can be requested.
43. No Contact Order vs. Restraining Order
This lesson provides information on how a no contract order differs from a restraining order. Similarities are provided in order to compliment the differences. Examples on the different orders are also covered in this lesson.
44. No Contact Order: Violation & Consequences
This lesson will provide a basic overview of different types of no contact orders and the consequences of violating those orders. Examples of different violations will also be covered.
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Other chapters within the Intro to Criminal Justice: Help and Review course
- Introduction to Crime & Criminology: Help and Review
- Theories of Crime: Help and Review
- Types of Crime: Help and Review
- The Criminal Justice Field: Help and Review
- Criminal Justice Agencies in the U.S.: Help and Review
- Law Enforcement in the U.S.: Help and Review
- The Role of the Police Department: Help and Review
- The U.S. Court System: Help and Review
- Constitutional Law in the U.S.: Help and Review
- The Criminal Trial in the U.S. Justice System: Help and Review
- The Sentencing Process in Criminal Justice: Help and Review
- Corrections & Correctional Institutions: Help and Review
- The Juvenile Justice System: Help and Review