About This Chapter
Cycles and Layers of the Earth - Chapter Summary
Lessons in this chapter start by showing you how natural phenomena, like earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanoes, break apart and reshape the Earth's surface. You can also learn about less catastrophic processes affecting the landscape, such as weathering and erosion. Rock groups and the formation of minerals and fossils are also covered before moving on to discuss the ways in which ocean currents, atmospheric layers and landforms influence our weather and our regional climates.
You can also learn about the process by which water moves from the Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back again, or explore the adverse effects of dams, reservoirs and other methods for tapping into ground and surface water resources. Lastly, lessons introduce you to the concepts you'll need to be familiar with to read a landform diagram describing a landscape's geological features. Some of the key topics addressed by this chapter are listed below:
- Rock groups and geological progression
- Atmospheric layers and weather patterns
- Soil absorption, runoff and the water cycle
- Water storage and resource issues
Our online lessons on cycles and layers of the Earth each include a video presentation by an experienced, knowledgeable educator. These lessons also contain self-assessment quizzes that allow you to link back to video content. If you'd like to access the material in a different format, transcripts link to text lessons that explain key terms and concepts more in-depth.
1. The Dynamic Earth: Internal & External Forces that Shape Earth's Surface
There are many geologic processes that shape the surface of the Earth. Not only do they build and destroy a variety of landscapes, but they also give us clues to the interior of the Earth and the forces that exist there.
2. How a Landform Diagram Describes the Geological Progression of a Landscape
This lesson describes what a landform diagram is. We'll also discuss some basic laws of geology that can help scientists deduce both the order of events that create a landform and the geologic events that occur after a landform's formation.
3. Types of Rocks: The Three Major Rock Groups
Did you know that lava is molten rock that reaches the earth's surface? Furthermore, did you know that rocks exist in three general forms: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic? This lesson describes these rock types and examples of each.
4. Rocks and Minerals: Definitions and Differences
Can you tell the difference between a rock and a mineral? What makes a mineral so much different from a rock? Explore these questions in depth, and learn how we classify rocks and minerals.
5. Natural Factors That Determine a Region's Climate
Climate is influenced by factors like atmosphere, ocean currents, landforms and plate tectonics. This lesson explains how these effects affect our weather patterns, which determine climate.
6. The Water Cycle: Precipitation, Condensation, and Evaporation
This lesson discusses the processes water takes as it moves around the Earth in the water cycle. You'll get an in-depth look at condensation, precipitation, and evaporation.
7. Water Resource Issues: Activities Affecting the Water Supply
This video lesson describes water resources issues such as aquifer depletion, overdrawing surface waters and salinization of irrigated soil. You will also learn about the impacts of activities affecting water resources.
8. Water Storage: The Pros and Cons of Dams & Reservoirs
In this lesson, you will contrast the benefits and drawback of water storage. You will learn about how and why water is stored and how this affects the surrounding ecosystems and human communities.
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Other chapters within the FTCE Middle Grades General Science 5-9 (004): Test Practice & Study Guide course
- Structure and Behavior of Matter
- Trends of the Periodic Table
- Gas Laws
- Properties of Waves
- Electricity and Magnetic Force
- Basics of Thermodynamics
- The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Electric Units
- Plate Tectonics and Dating Methods
- Space Science
- Cell Biology
- Process of DNA Replication
- The Transcription and Translation Process
- Chemical Reactions of Metabolism
- Overview of Cell Division
- Biology of Genetics
- Plant Biology Overview
- Human Anatomy & Physiology Overview
- Biological Evolution & Natural Selection
- Organism Classification & Phylogenesis
- Microbiology Overview
- Ecology & Florida
- Analyzing Scientific Data
- Scientific Principles
- FTCE Middle Grades General Science 5-9 Flashcards