About This Chapter
Digestive & Excretory Systems in Humans - Chapter Summary
This chapter includes lessons on digestive and excretory systems in humans. There are discussions covering absorption of nutrients, enterogastric reflex, and electrolyte balance. You'll also gain an understanding of why close to 400,000 people in the U.S. undergo dialysis treatment each year. After completing the chapter, you should be prepared to:
- Discuss the beginning of the digestive process, including digestive enzymes in your saliva
- Explore the lower gastrointestinal tract and the last stages of the digestion process
- Explain intestinal movements, like peristalsis and segmentation
- Describe modifications within the walls of the small intestines and nutrient absorption
- Discuss how the large intestine prepares the body for the elimination of feces
- Explore the excretory system and how excess fluid is removed
- List three stages in urine formation
- Explain how the kidneys regulate water and acid base balance
These brief and engaging video lessons help you quickly understand the topics presented, and our expert instructors provide plenty of examples. You can review all the lessons in order, or just look at the ones that cover the topics you need to review. A brief multiple-choice quiz is available for each lesson to test your knowledge, and the quizzes have links back to specific topics in the video just in case there are areas you need to review further.
1. Digestive System I: The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
Did you know that there are digestive enzymes in your saliva? It's true. As soon as you put a piece of food in your mouth, the digestive process begins. Join us with this first of two lessons about the human digestive system, where we'll follow food through the upper gastrointestinal tract from the mouth through the stomach.
2. Digestive System II: The Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
The lower gastrointestinal tract is the part of the digestive system that is responsible for the last part of food digestion and the expulsion of waste from the body. In this lesson, we'll look at each part of the system and what functions each serves in the process of digestion.
3. Movement Through the Small Intestine: Peristalsis, Segmentation & Pendular Movement
The small intestine is an important organ for digestion and absorption of nutrients. In this lesson, you will learn about the enterogastric reflex. You will also learn how intestinal movements, such as peristalsis, segmentation, and pendular movement, improve digestion and absorption.
4. Small Intestine: Nutrient Absorption and Role In Digestion
The majority of digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine. In this lesson, you will learn about unique modifications within the walls of the small intestine, such as microvilli, villi, and circular folds. These structures increase absorption of nutrients.
5. Rectum, Functions of the Large Intestine & Water Absorption
The large intestine is the final processing area for digested food. In this lesson, you will learn how the large intestine removes water from undigested food and prepares for the elimination of feces through the anus.
6. Excretory System
Each year in the U.S., close to 400,000 people with kidney failure undergo dialysis treatment in order to remove waste, remove excess fluid and restore electrolyte balance. Kidneys, the workhorses of the excretory system, perform these same functions more effectively than any machine. In this lesson, we'll talk about how the excretory system removes toxic substances from the body.
7. The Three Processes of Urine Formation
Urine may be a waste product, but it is a carefully created waste product. There are three main stages in urine formation, and this lesson covers them all!
8. How the Kidneys Regulate Water Balance
Water balance is essential to our health and survival. This lesson explores how the kidneys regulate water balance with special cells known as osmoreceptors and a process called osmoregulation. You'll also learn how this process relates to a rare form of diabetes known as diabetes insipidus.
9. How the Kidneys Regulate Acid Base Balance
Find out how your kidneys keep you alive by excreting acids and bases in conditions like respiratory acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, and respiratory alkalosis.
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