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Ch 14: Digestive System Structure & Function

About This Chapter

Further develop your understanding of the structure and function of the digestive system with this overview that includes physiology of the stomach, the structure of teeth, and more. These concise lessons are a handy resource for individuals preparing for an exam or catching up on missed class time.

Digestive System Structure & Function - Chapter Summary

While studying these lessons, you will heighten your knowledge of the structure and function of the digestive system. One of the topics that you'll review is nutrient absorption during digestion. This chapter can also help you understand the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder as accessory organs. After reviewing the lessons, you should be ready to do the following:

  • Discuss the functions of different types of teeth
  • Explain how the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts work
  • Recall the functions and types of digestive enzymes
  • List chemicals produced and stored in accessory organs
  • Explain how the autonomic nervous system controls digestion
  • Discuss how food is mechanically broken down in the stomach
  • Describe unique modifications found in the walls of the small intestines

A brief quiz is available for each lesson to help you assess which concepts you've mastered and what you might need to work on further. You can optimize this resource by printing the quiz in worksheet form to use as a study guide. Vocabulary words are highlighted in bold for quick reference.

8 Lessons in Chapter 14: Digestive System Structure & Function
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Teeth: Types, Structure & Function

1. Teeth: Types, Structure & Function

In this lesson, you will learn about all of the different types of teeth in your mouth. You will also learn about the function of each type of tooth, and how the structure of the tooth helps aid in its function.

Digestive System I: The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

2. Digestive System I: The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

Did you know that there are digestive enzymes in your saliva? It's true. As soon as you put a piece of food in your mouth, the digestive process begins. Join us with this first of two lessons about the human digestive system, where we'll follow food through the upper gastrointestinal tract from the mouth through the stomach.

Digestive System II: The Lower Gastrointestinal Tract

3. Digestive System II: The Lower Gastrointestinal Tract

The lower gastrointestinal tract is the part of the digestive system that is responsible for the last part of food digestion and the expulsion of waste from the body. In this lesson, we'll look at each part of the system and what functions each serves in the process of digestion.

What Are Digestive Enzymes? - Functions & Types

4. What Are Digestive Enzymes? - Functions & Types

We are what we eat. But that doesn't mean our blood vessels are filled with giant chunks of hamburger. Thankfully, digestive enzymes help break down food into sizes small enough to be absorbed into our bloodstream. In this lesson, learn about these vitally important proteins.

Accessory Organs of the Digestive System

5. Accessory Organs of the Digestive System

Your pancreas, liver and gallbladder are accessory organs that help with the chemical digestion of food. Learn about the enzymes and other chemicals produced and stored in these organs as well as how they help you break down the foods you eat.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach and Autonomic Nervous System Controls

6. Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach and Autonomic Nervous System Controls

In this lesson, you will learn how the unique anatomy of the stomach - including rugae, gastric pits and gastric glands - makes it a perfect organ for digestion. You will also learn how the autonomic nervous system controls digestion.

Physiology of the Stomach and Gastric Juices

7. Physiology of the Stomach and Gastric Juices

When food enters your stomach, it is mechanically broken down by a process called churning. In this lesson you will learn about this process and the chemical break down of proteins within the stomach by the enzyme pepsin.

Small Intestine: Nutrient Absorption and Role In Digestion

8. Small Intestine: Nutrient Absorption and Role In Digestion

The majority of digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine. In this lesson, you will learn about unique modifications within the walls of the small intestine, such as microvilli, villi, and circular folds. These structures increase absorption of nutrients.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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