About This Chapter
Who's It For?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering material on the digestive system will benefit from the lessons in this chapter. There is no faster or easier way to learn about the digestive system. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding anatomy and physiology of the mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and other parts of the digestive track or the chemical processes behind digestion
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning biology (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about the digestive system
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra biology learning resources
How It Works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Digestive System Study Guide chapter exam.
Why It Works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Digestive System Study Guide chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any question related to the digestive system. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students Will Review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a digestive system unit of a standard human biology course. Topics covered include:
- Functions and parts of the of the mouth, throat, and esophagus
- Physiology, anatomy and functions of the stomached
- Role of the small intestine, pancreas, enzymes, and large intestine
- Functions of the gallbladder and liver
- How digestive processes work on a chemical and metabolic level
1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Mouth
The digestive system is a long tube that breaks food down both mechanically and chemically. In this lesson, you will learn about the mouth and how it begins the digestive process - with the help of the teeth and the enzyme called salivary amylase.
2. Anatomy of the Throat and Esophagus
After food has been partially broken down in the mouth, it moves through the pharynx, or throat, and the esophagus. In this lesson, you will learn how food is swallowed and how it is propelled by peristalsis through the esophagus.
3. Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach and Autonomic Nervous System Controls
In this lesson, you will learn how the unique anatomy of the stomach - including rugae, gastric pits and gastric glands - makes it a perfect organ for digestion. You will also learn how the autonomic nervous system controls digestion.
4. Physiology of the Stomach and Gastric Juices
When food enters your stomach, it is mechanically broken down by a process called churning. In this lesson you will learn about this process and the chemical break down of proteins within the stomach by the enzyme pepsin.
5. What is the Small Intestine? - Anatomy and Functions
In this lesson, you will learn about the three divisions of the small intestine - the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. You will also gain an understanding of the basic functions of each of these sections, including their role in removing bacteria.
6. What Is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes & Role in Digestion
Your pancreas plays an important role in the digestion of food. In this lesson, you will learn about the enzymes found in pancreatic juice that allow your body to break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
7. The Gallbladder & Liver: Function & Role in Digestion
Bile is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. In this lesson, you will learn about bile and its role in the breakdown of dietary fats. You will also learn how the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin help regulate these organs.
8. Movement Through the Small Intestine: Peristalsis, Segmentation & Pendular Movement
The small intestine is an important organ for digestion and absorption of nutrients. In this lesson, you will learn about the enterogastric reflex. You will also learn how intestinal movements, such as peristalsis, segmentation, and pendular movement, improve digestion and absorption.
9. Small Intestine: Nutrient Absorption and Role In Digestion
The majority of digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine. In this lesson, you will learn about unique modifications within the walls of the small intestine, such as microvilli, villi, and circular folds. These structures increase absorption of nutrients.
10. Anatomy and Physiology of the Large Intestine
The large intestine is the made up of the cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal. In this lesson, you will learn about the anatomical features and basic functions of these large intestine segments.
11. Rectum, Functions of the Large Intestine & Water Absorption
The large intestine is the final processing area for digested food. In this lesson, you will learn how the large intestine removes water from undigested food and prepares for the elimination of feces through the anus.
12. Chemical Digestion of Carbohydrates: Definition & Process
Carbohydrates are an important energy source, but must be broken down to be absorbed out of the digestive tract. In this lesson, you will learn how disaccharides and polysaccharides are broken down to monosaccharides through a process called hydrolysis.
13. Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption: Process & End Products
Carbohydrates that you eat are broken down to monosaccharides by enzymes in your digestive tract. In this lesson, you will learn about these digestive enzymes and how monosaccharides are absorbed out of the digestive tract.
14. Protein Digestion and Absorption Process
Protein is one of the primary nutrients your body uses to build cellular structures. In this lesson, you will learn how protein is broken down into amino acids within your digestive tract and how amino acids are absorbed out of the intestines and into the hepatic portal system.
15. Lipids Digestion and Absorption
Lipids, or fats, are digested and absorbed in the small intestine. In this lesson, you will learn how bile salts emulsify fat so pancreatic lipase can digest it. You will also learn how fats first enter lymphatic capillaries, called lacteals, before entering your blood circulation.
16. Transverse Colon: Definition & Function
The transverse colon is a part of the large intestines. In this lesson, learn the structural details, as well as the functionality of this important part of the digestive system.
17. Sclerosing Mesenteritis: Causes & Treatment
Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare but painful disorder. In this lesson, you're going to learn what it is in simple terms as well as what its causes and treatments might be.
18. Mesentery: Medical Definition & Function
In this lesson, you will learn about the mesentery, its functions, its characteristics, and its classifications. You will also become familiar with the difference between true mesenteries and specialized mesenteries.
19. Epiploic Appendix: Definition & Functions
Although appendices is part of the term, the epiploic appendices (appendages) are not the appendix! Find out what they are in this lesson and what roles some believe they play in our body.
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Other chapters within the Human Biology Study Guide course
- Introduction to Human Biology
- Human Respiratory System Study Guide
- Human Circulatory System Study Guide
- Blood Vessels Study Guide
- Human Endocrine System Study Guide
- Skeletal System Study Guide
- Muscular System Study Guide
- Integumentary System Study Guide
- Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Nervous Systems Study Guide
- Urinary System Study Guide
- Reproductive System Study Guide
- Human Reproduction Study Guide
- Cell Structures & Cycles Study Guide
- Human Genetics Study Guide
- Disease & Disorders Study Guide
- Disease Origins Study Guide
- Diseases & Disorders Study Guide
- Dentistry Basics Study Guide