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- Become familiar with the anatomy and physiology of the mouth.
- Name the different parts of the throat and esophagus.
- Describe how the autonomic nervous system controls the physiological functions of the stomach.
- Explain the process of digestion and the role gastric juices play.
- Discuss the anatomy and functions of the small intestine.
- Describe the role the pancreas plays in digestion. Name the enzymes that it produces.
- List the functions of the gallbladder and liver and describe their role in digestion.
- Explain how food moves through the small intestine.
- Discuss how nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine.
- Take a look at the anatomy and physiology of the large intestine.
- Describe the role of the rectum and functions of the large intestine. Explain how water is absorbed in the large intestine.
- Explain the process of chemical digestion as it relates to carbohydrates.
- Name the end products of carbohydrate digestion and absorption.
- Take a look at the digestion and absorption process of protein.
- Explain how lipids are digested and absorbed.
1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Mouth
The digestive system is a long tube that breaks food down both mechanically and chemically. In this lesson, you will learn about the mouth and how it begins the digestive process - with the help of the teeth and the enzyme called salivary amylase.
2. Anatomy of the Throat and Esophagus
After food has been partially broken down in the mouth, it moves through the pharynx, or throat, and the esophagus. In this lesson, you will learn how food is swallowed and how it is propelled by peristalsis through the esophagus.
3. Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach and Autonomic Nervous System Controls
In this lesson, you will learn how the unique anatomy of the stomach - including rugae, gastric pits and gastric glands - makes it a perfect organ for digestion. You will also learn how the autonomic nervous system controls digestion.
4. Physiology of the Stomach and Gastric Juices
When food enters your stomach, it is mechanically broken down by a process called churning. In this lesson you will learn about this process and the chemical break down of proteins within the stomach by the enzyme pepsin.
5. What is the Small Intestine? - Anatomy and Functions
In this lesson, you will learn about the three divisions of the small intestine - the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. You will also gain an understanding of the basic functions of each of these sections, including their role in removing bacteria.
6. What Is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes & Role in Digestion
Your pancreas plays an important role in the digestion of food. In this lesson, you will learn about the enzymes found in pancreatic juice that allow your body to break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
7. The Gallbladder & Liver: Function & Role in Digestion
Bile is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. In this lesson, you will learn about bile and its role in the breakdown of dietary fats. You will also learn how the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin help regulate these organs.
8. Movement Through the Small Intestine: Peristalsis, Segmentation & Pendular Movement
The small intestine is an important organ for digestion and absorption of nutrients. In this lesson, you will learn about the enterogastric reflex. You will also learn how intestinal movements, such as peristalsis, segmentation, and pendular movement, improve digestion and absorption.
9. Small Intestine: Nutrient Absorption and Role In Digestion
The majority of digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine. In this lesson, you will learn about unique modifications within the walls of the small intestine, such as microvilli, villi, and circular folds. These structures increase absorption of nutrients.
10. Anatomy and Physiology of the Large Intestine
The large intestine is the made up of the cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal. In this lesson, you will learn about the anatomical features and basic functions of these large intestine segments.
11. Rectum, Functions of the Large Intestine & Water Absorption
The large intestine is the final processing area for digested food. In this lesson, you will learn how the large intestine removes water from undigested food and prepares for the elimination of feces through the anus.
12. Chemical Digestion of Carbohydrates: Definition & Process
Carbohydrates are an important energy source, but must be broken down to be absorbed out of the digestive tract. In this lesson, you will learn how disaccharides and polysaccharides are broken down to monosaccharides through a process called hydrolysis.
13. Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption: Process & End Products
Carbohydrates that you eat are broken down to monosaccharides by enzymes in your digestive tract. In this lesson, you will learn about these digestive enzymes and how monosaccharides are absorbed out of the digestive tract.
14. Protein Digestion and Absorption Process
Protein is one of the primary nutrients your body uses to build cellular structures. In this lesson, you will learn how protein is broken down into amino acids within your digestive tract and how amino acids are absorbed out of the intestines and into the hepatic portal system.
15. Lipids Digestion and Absorption
Lipids, or fats, are digested and absorbed in the small intestine. In this lesson, you will learn how bile salts emulsify fat so pancreatic lipase can digest it. You will also learn how fats first enter lymphatic capillaries, called lacteals, before entering your blood circulation.
16. Chymotrypsin: Definition, Structure & Mechanism
Chymotrypsin is an enzyme used for digesting proteins. In this lesson we will learn what types of proteins it digests and how it digests those proteins.
17. Chymotrypsin: Uses & Functions
The body uses several enzymes to digest food. One of these enzymes, chymotrypsin, is for digesting proteins. We will learn about this and other uses of chymotrypsin outside of digestion.
18. The Difference Between Trypsin & Chymotrypsin
Trypsin and chymotrypsin are two very similar enzymes that perform similar functions. In this lesson we will explore how they are different and what in the structure causes the difference.
19. Trypsin: Definition, Function & Mechanism of Action
Trypsin is one of the enzymes used to digest proteins. It is very similar to another protein digestion enzyme, chymotrypsin. In this lesson we'll learn more about trypsin, what it does, and how it works.
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