About This Chapter
Disorders of the Immune System - Chapter Summary
This chapter offers a comprehensive overview of different disorders of the immune system. Feel confident in your knowledge of autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivity, allergies and much more by reviewing bite-sized lessons. Mini quizzes and a practice exam can quickly and effectively check your knowledge of these topics. If you hit a snag or need additional clarification of information presented in the lessons, feel free to submit questions to our experts. Once you've completed this chapter, you will be able to do the following:
- Discuss delayed-type, immune complex, cytotoxic and other forms of hypersensitivity
- Explain the purpose of the degranulation process and discuss the release of mediators
- Define and list types of immune deficiency diseases
- Differentiate between transfusion and transplant reactions
- List causes and symptoms of hemolytic disease of the newborn
- Share causes and discuss the treatment of serum sickness
- Describe signs and treatments of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
- Exhibit knowledge of inflammatory and allergic skin pathologies
- Provide the definition, signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis
- Discuss causes, symptoms and treatments of allergies and asthma
- Identify two major tests for tuberculosis
1. Type I Hypersensitivity: Allergic Reactions
This lesson delves into something known as type I hypersensitivity reactions. You'll find out how everything from mast cells, basophils, and IgE to histamine, bee stings, and peanut allergies all play a role in this process.
2. Type II Hypersensitivity: Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity
This lesson will discuss something known as a type II hypersensitivity reaction. We will go over the principal mechanisms by which it occurs as well as the major antibodies involved. In addition, we'll cover autoimmune hemolytic anemia and myasthenia gravis.
3. Type III Hypersensitivity: Immune Complex Hypersensitivity
This lesson will discuss what a type III hypersensitivity reaction causes. It will delve into which antibodies are involved, the creation of immune complexes, the development of arthritis, vasculitis, and glomerulonephritis, and much more.
4. Type IV Hypersensitivity: Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity
This lesson will cover type IV hypersensitivity. We'll discuss the basics of how and why it occurs, the cells involved, and the most common types of diseases and conditions that are associated with this hypersensitivity reaction.
5. Degranulation Process: Mediator Release & Purpose
This lesson defines degranulation, goes over the fundamentals of how it occurs, and then covers some of the many effects it has with respect to mast cells.
6. Autoimmune Diseases and Hypersensitivity
This lesson will talk about what defines an autoimmune disease, a hypersensitivity reaction, and more. We'll also discuss Graves' disease and myasthenia gravis.
7. Immune Deficiency Diseases: Definitions & Types
This lesson will teach you about the immune system, what immune deficiency means, why that's dangerous, and about the important causes of such a problem, including HIV/AIDS, SCID, CVID, and more.
8. Transfusion and Transplant Reactions
A transfusion reaction occurs when incompatible blood is given to a recipient. A transplant rejection occurs when an incompatible organ or tissue is given to a recipient. Learn about these reactions and tests that are done to lessen their effects.
9. Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
This lesson goes over the fundamentals of hemolytic disease of the newborn. You'll learn about its cause, signs and consequences, as well as major treatment options.
10. Serum Sickness: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
This lesson goes over a condition called serum sickness. You'll learn what can cause it, what happens in the body as a result of it, what signs and symptoms might occur, and how it can be managed.
11. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): Causes, Signs & Treatments
This lesson will discuss the complex pathophysiology behind systemic lupus erythematosus. You will learn why it occurs, what may trigger it, and how it can be properly diagnosed, treated, and managed.
12. Skin Pathologies: Inflammatory & Allergic Eruptions
In this lesson, discover terms used to classify inflammatory skin conditions and their symptoms, including pruritus, erythema, psoriasis, dermatitis, erythema multiforme, urticaria, scleroderma, and ichthyosis.
13. Atopic Dermatitis: Skin Allergies
This lesson will define atopic dermatitis, as well as explain how filaggrin plays a role in its development. We'll also review the different signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis, as well as the ways this condition can be treated.
14. Allergies and Asthma: Causes, Symptoms & Treatments
This lesson explores the meaning of allergies and asthma and how they may interact with one another at the same time. You'll learn about allergic rhinitis, intrinsic asthma and extrinsic asthma as well as the signs, symptoms, and treatment options of each.
15. Terminology of Tuberculosis Tests
This lesson defines the two major tests used in testing for tuberculosis: the tuberculin tine test and the Mantoux PPD (Tuberculin) skin test. It also defines antigen and tuberculin.
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