About This Chapter
Diversity in Society
Diversity in society encompasses differences in race, ethnic background and gender, as well as differences in how we act and how we're labeled based upon our income. This chapter's knowledgeable instructors can help you understand more about what makes a society diverse. Once you've completed this chapter, you'll be able to do the following:
- Explain various theories of deviance.
- Discuss the four rationales for social punishment.
- Differentiate between caste and class, as well as among different class levels.
- Identify types of social mobility, including intragenerational, intergenerational, vertical and horizontal.
|Sociological Theories of Deviance: Definitions and Theoretical Perspectives||Define deviance. Explain theories of deviance, including Durkheim and Merton's perspectives.|
|Labeling Theory and Crime: Stigma & Retrospective and Projective Labeling||Explain labeling theory, including the distinction between retrospective and projective labeling. Define stigma. Discuss Sutherland's differential association theory of deviance and Hirshchi's control theory.|
|Social-Conflict Theory and Crime: Definitions and Approach to Deviance||Discuss the social-conflict approach to deviance, including deviance and power, deviance and capitalism, and differences between white-collar and blue-collar crime. Define corporate and organized crime.|
|Crime and Deviance in the U.S. Criminal Justice System: Punishment and Due Process||Explain how the U.S. criminal justice system deals with deviant acts, including due process and four rationales for social punishment (retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation and societal protection).|
|Social Status: Caste vs. Class and Social Stratification||Describe the difference between caste and class. Define social stratification.|
|American Class System and Structure: Definitions & Types of Social Classes||Describe the American class system/structure, and define upper-, middle-, working, lower- and under-class. Discuss the difference between income and wealth.|
|Social Mobility Definition and Types: Intragenerational vs. Intergenerational & Vertical vs. Horizontal||Define social mobility, and discuss different types, including intragenerational vs. intergenerational and vertical vs. horizontal.|
|Poverty in the United States: Definitions of Relative & Absolute Poverty||Explain the difference between relative and absolute poverty. Discuss links between poverty, race, age and gender, and learn about the 'working poor' and the homeless population.|
|Global Stratification Definition: Differences in Income Levels and Poverty||Explain differences among high-, middle- and low-income countries, giving examples of each. Define and give explanations for poverty, including modernization and dependency theories.|
1. Sociological Theories of Deviance: Definitions and Theoretical Perspectives
There is a diverse range of behaviors in society that goes against expectations and cultural norms. In this lesson, we define and go over some examples of the different types of deviance. We also discuss two sociological theories about deviance created by Emile Durkheim and Robert Merton.
2. Labeling Theory and Crime: Stigma & Retrospective and Projective Labeling
Labeling others is common in our society. In this lesson, we discuss the specifics of labeling theory, including when and why people are labeled. We also distinguish between retroactive and projective labeling and briefly discuss Travis Hirschi's control theory.
3. Social Conflict Theory and Crime: Definitions and Approach to Deviance
In this lesson, we discuss the social conflict approach to deviance, including the connection between deviance and power as well as deviance and capitalism. We also discuss the difference between white-collar and blue-collar crime and define corporate crime and organized crime.
4. Crime and Deviance in the U.S. Criminal Justice System: Punishment and Due Process
In this lesson, we discuss the U.S. criminal justice system and how it deals with deviant acts. We define due process and discuss four rationales for social punishment: retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, and societal protection.
5. Social Status: Caste vs. Class and Social Stratification
Social hierarchies exist in all societies and cultures. In this lesson, we define social stratification and its characteristics. We also discuss the difference between open and closed systems, including what differentiates a caste from a class.
6. American Class System and Structure: Definitions & Types of Social Classes
In this lesson, we discuss the American class system and the social stratification layers that exist within each class. We also differentiate between income and wealth and discuss how they relate to social status.
7. Social Mobility Definition and Types: Intragenerational vs. Intergenerational & Vertical vs. Horizontal
In our society, some individuals and families experience drastic changes in social status and lifestyle. In this lesson, we define social mobility and discuss different types, including intragenerational, intergenerational, vertical, and horizontal mobility.
8. Poverty in the United States: Definitions of Relative & Absolute Poverty
Today, a significant number of Americans suffer from poverty. In this lesson, we define and discuss the difference between relative poverty and absolute poverty. We also examine the populations that are most at risk.
9. Global Stratification Definition: Differences in Income Levels and Poverty
In this lesson, we define global stratification and discuss how nations are stratified. We discuss the outdated three-world model as well as the current differences between high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries.
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Other chapters within the Sociology 101: Intro to Sociology course
- Introduction to Sociology: The Basics
- Key Sociology Theorists
- Sociology Research Methods
- Foundations of Society
- Theories of Individual Social Development
- Social Groups & Organizations
- Sex and Gender in Society
- Race and Ethnicity in Society
- Aging in Society
- Economics and Politics
- Social Institutions
- Social Change Over Time
- Studying for Sociology 101