About This Chapter
Diversity Issues in the School Setting - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Any issue related to diversity that exists within society can be mirrored in the somewhat narrower setting found in schools. School psychologists, social workers, teachers and other school personnel deal with diversity matters every day. Lessons in this chapter address the theories of deviance and discuss the hypotheses and viewpoints of prominent sociologists. You'll also be able to learn about labeling theory, retrospective and projective labeling, and stigmas, as well as social conflict theories related to crime and the process of the U.S. criminal justice system.
You can also study the effects of poverty, class and caste systems, and second language acquisition on learning. The lessons provide strategies for understanding various types of families and for encouraging compassion for diverse human qualities. Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:
- Understand sociological theories of deviance
- Comprehend crime and deviance in the United States
- Name the levels of social status and types of social mobility
- Define multiple levels of poverty and social stratification
- Understand second language acquisition and its effects on learning
- Name ways that prior experience and language differences can affect learning
These video lessons are engaging and entertaining. If you're more of a literary learner, each lesson includes a written transcript in the same easy-to-understand style. You can also test your comprehension of the material by quizzing yourself using the short quizzes associated with the lessons.
1. Sociological Theories of Deviance: Definitions and Theoretical Perspectives
There is a diverse range of behaviors in society that goes against expectations and cultural norms. In this lesson, we define and go over some examples of the different types of deviance. We also discuss two sociological theories about deviance created by Emile Durkheim and Robert Merton.
2. Labeling Theory and Crime: Stigma & Retrospective and Projective Labeling
Labeling others is common in our society. In this lesson, we discuss the specifics of labeling theory, including when and why people are labeled. We also distinguish between retroactive and projective labeling and briefly discuss Travis Hirschi's control theory.
3. Social Conflict Theory and Crime: Definitions and Approach to Deviance
In this lesson, we discuss the social conflict approach to deviance, including the connection between deviance and power as well as deviance and capitalism. We also discuss the difference between white-collar and blue-collar crime and define corporate crime and organized crime.
4. Crime and Deviance in the U.S. Criminal Justice System: Punishment and Due Process
In this lesson, we discuss the U.S. criminal justice system and how it deals with deviant acts. We define due process and discuss four rationales for social punishment: retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, and societal protection.
5. Social Status: Caste vs. Class and Social Stratification
Social hierarchies exist in all societies and cultures. In this lesson, we define social stratification and its characteristics. We also discuss the difference between open and closed systems, including what differentiates a caste from a class.
6. Social Mobility Definition and Types: Intragenerational vs. Intergenerational & Vertical vs. Horizontal
In our society, some individuals and families experience drastic changes in social status and lifestyle. In this lesson, we define social mobility and discuss different types, including intragenerational, intergenerational, vertical, and horizontal mobility.
7. Poverty in the United States: Definitions of Relative & Absolute Poverty
Today, a significant number of Americans suffer from poverty. In this lesson, we define and discuss the difference between relative poverty and absolute poverty. We also examine the populations that are most at risk.
8. Global Stratification Definition: Differences in Income Levels and Poverty
In this lesson, we define global stratification and discuss how nations are stratified. We discuss the outdated three-world model as well as the current differences between high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries.
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Other chapters within the ILTS School Psychologist (237): Test Practice and Study Guide course
- Developmental Psychology in Young People
- Student Learning and Motivation
- Cognitive Influences on Learning
- Individual Differences in Children
- Classroom Teaching Strategies
- Behavioral Influences on Learning
- Factors that Affect Students and Schools
- Home, School, and Community Systems
- Organization and Operation of School Systems
- Psychology Research & Design Analysis
- ILTS School Psychologist Flashcards
- Learning Assessments