About This Chapter
DNA Basics - Chapter Summary
Deoxyribonucleic Acid is the basic blueprint for all of human life. Use these lessons to explore the discovery of DNA and how it has been used in medical, forensic and scientific fields. Make sure you know what gene expression is and the current view on DNA replication among scientists. How DNA works to create proteins and more complex organisms will also be covered. Finish off with some of the current uses of DNA and the achievements made in the human genome project. Once you have finished these lessons, you will be able to:
- Explain the contributions made by Frederick Griffith and the Hershey-Chase Experiment
- Describe what the genetic code is and the importance of protein synthesis
- Discuss DNA replication, gene expression and how it is regulated
- Identify the human genome project goals and its effect on the world
- Detail different fields that use DNA today
- Explain what genetic engineering is and how it can be used
These lessons use a video format combined with a written transcript to create an engaging learning setup. Each lesson also includes a self-assessment quiz, allowing you to make sure you picked up on the most important concepts. You can study this chapter whenever you find the time, using your phone, tablet or computer. The Dashboard feature of your account makes it easy to pick up right where you left off, no matter what device you are using.
1. Frederick Griffith: Experiment & Discovery
Read about Frederick Griffith and learn about his famous 1928 experiment on bacteria. Explore how the experiment was conducted and how this experiment changed how the modern world looks at bacteria.
2. The Hershey-Chase Experiment
In this lesson we will discuss the Hershey-Chase experiment, a simple but powerful experiment that helped prove that DNA was genetic material. Hershey and Chase used a phage, or a virus that infects bacteria, and E. coli to answer their question.
3. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
4. Overview of the Genetic Code
Ever wonder how so much genetic material can exist in every cell? In this lesson, we take a look at how the genetic code works, specifically with how codons signal for amino acids.
5. How Does DNA Replicate?
In this lesson, we will learn why DNA replicates as well as how. We'll also learn about the rates of replication and how DNA proofreads itself. After watching the lesson, you can complete a short quiz to test your knowledge.
6. What Is DNA Replication? - Conservative, Semi-Conservative & Dispersive Models
How do we know that DNA replication is semi-conservative? How do we know it's not conservative or dispersive? Let's follow the famous experiment by Meselson and Stahl to find out!
7. What Is Gene Expression? - Regulation, Analysis & Definition
What is a gene? How are genes expressed? What does the term gene expression mean? Can we analyze gene expression? These questions will be addressed in this lesson.
8. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.
9. What is the Human Genome Project? - Definition, Purpose & Benefits
We often hear about scientific research being done but may not truly understand what that entails. This is not one of those times. The Human Genome Project has allowed many breakthroughs in genetic research that affect us in a very tangible way, right here, right now.
10. What is DNA Fingerprinting? - Process & Uses
DNA fingerprinting is a very useful technique that has applications beyond criminal and forensic analysis. In this lesson, you'll learn what DNA fingerprinting is, how it is done, and different ways it can be used to determine identity.
11. What is Genetic Engineering? - Definition and Examples
How do we make the insulin used by diabetic patients? In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of how genetic engineering can be used to transform a bacterial host cell into a genetically-modified organism that produces human insulin.
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Other chapters within the ISC Biology: Study Guide & Syllabus course
- Microscopes Basics & Techniques
- Classification & Diversity of Life
- Kingdom Monera, Protista & Fungi
- Classification in the Animal Kingdom
- Overview of Vertebrates
- Classification in the Plant Kingdom
- Plant Physiology: Growth & Nutrition
- Plant Tissue: Structure & Function
- Absorption & Movement of Water in Plants
- Plant Morphology
- Reproduction of Flowering Plants
- Mechanisms of Photosynthesis
- Mechanisms of Cellular Respiration
- Cell Structure Overview
- Cell Membrane Basics
- Recombinant DNA & Its Applications
- Overview of Basic Genetic Principles
- Chromosomes & Genetics
- The Cell Cycle, Mitosis & Meiosis
- Overview of Biomolecules
- Enzyme Mechanisms
- Animal Tissue: Structure & Function
- Nutrition & the Digestive System
- Human Respiratory System Overview
- Basics of the Circulatory System
- Excretory System Overview
- Endocrine System Overview
- Basics of the Nervous System
- The Musculoskeletal System
- Human Reproduction & Development Basics
- Human Disease & Defense
- Origin & Evolution of Life
- Overview of Ecosystems
- Community Ecology Overview
- Overview of Biodiversity
- Environmental Biology Overview
- Biological Applications in Agriculture
- ISC Biology Flashcards