About This Chapter
DNA Damage, Mutation, and Repair - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
As the scientific community has learned more about DNA, we have all learned more about the important role DNA plays in human development. You likely know that when there are mutations in DNA during fetal development, a child can be born with conditions like Down syndrome. In these lessons, you will get to study how genes are able to mutate and understand the results and subsequent impacts of these mutations. You will also learn what outside factors in our environment might lead to a genetic mutation. It is also possible for DNA to repair itself, which you will also learn in these lessons. This chapter will teach you about:
- Types of DNA mutations
- Causes of DNA mutations
- The impact of DNA mutations
- Causes of DNA damage
- DNA repair processes
|Mutations||Discover how DNA mutations can occur and study the types of DNA mutations, such as point mutation, deletion, insertion, base substitution, silent mutation and frameshift.|
|Causes of Mutation and DNA Damage - Mutagens||Study the changes in genetic material caused by mutagens and what damage that could cause to DNA.|
|Causes of Mutation and DNA Damage - Irradiation||Explore how things in our environment, such as ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation and X-rays, can lead to DNA mutation and DNA damage.|
|DNA Base Excision Repair||Examine the role of DNA polymerase and DNA ligase in DNA repair. Explore the process in-depth as you see how DNA is able to repair itself.|
1. What is a Point Mutation? - Definition, Causes & Types
What are genetic mutations? How do they affect our DNA? This lesson covers the basics of point mutations and provides simple examples of different mutation types.
2. Effects of Mutations on Protein Function: Missense, Nonsense, and Silent Mutations
How does a tiny point mutation change the way a protein works? What are the consequences of base substitutions? In this lesson, we'll use an imaginary creature to explore missense, nonsense and silent mutations.
3. Effects of Frameshift Mutations: Definitions and Examples
What is a frameshift in genetic translation? How can a frameshift mutation change a protein? In this lesson, learn about the codon reading frame and how frameshift mutations cause serious problems for polypeptide formation.
4. Mutagens: How the Environment Affects Mutation Rates
What causes mutations to occur in living things? How do we avoid mutations? Are mutations always bad? Discover answers to these questions and more in this lesson on mutagens.
5. Causes of Mutation and DNA Damage- Mutagens
Mutations, or changes in DNA sequences, are incredibly important in biology, from evolution and diversity to cancer and genetic diseases. But how do mutations happen? In this lesson, you'll learn about mutagens, which are chemicals that can cause mutations.
6. Causes of Mutation and DNA Damage- Irradiation
By now, you know what mutations are and what effects they can cause, but how do mutations happen? In this lesson, learn about one important cause of mutations, irradiation.
7. DNA Mismatch Repair: Correcting Errors That Happen During DNA Replication
Don't you love spell check? Well, our cells do, too. Their spell check is called mismatch repair. In this lesson, learn how cells use mismatch repair to correct typos that they might make while they replicate their DNA.
8. Reversing DNA Damage Caused by Mutagens and Irradiation
Nobody likes to have surgery, but sometimes it's necessary to cut out the bad parts and replace them with fresh new tissue. The same is true for DNA! In this lesson, learn how DNA damage can be repaired in both surgical and non-surgical ways.
9. DNA Repair: Fixing Double-Strand Breaks
'Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall...' We all know what happens next, right? In this lesson, learn what happens when DNA is broken into pieces and how our cells try to put them back together again.
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