About This Chapter
DNA, Mendelian Genetics & Inheritance - Chapter Summary
In this engaging chapter, you'll review Mendelian genetics, inheritance and DNA. Other topics include the chemical structure of nucleic acids and the definition and structure of the nucleosome. These lessons also cover the function, characteristics and types of plasmids, and details about the fruit fly experiment of Thomas Hunt Morgan as well as aneuploidy and nondisjunction. This chapter is designed to help you:
- Provide an example of a dihybrid cross
- Explain how mRNA and gene sequences are determined
- Analyze genes on a chip using microarrays
- Differentiate between genes and alleles
- Outline the steps involved in polymerase chain reaction
- Define F1 generation
- Discuss crossing over and synapsis in meiosis
- Give an example of polygenic inheritance
We've designed these learning materials to make it easy for you to study whenever you need to on your mobile device or computer. You can watch a video lesson in its entirety or use the video tabs feature to skip to a specific section you'd like to see. Before taking an exam, check your understanding and readiness with the lesson quizzes and chapter test. If any of the topics seem too complicated, feel free to reach out to one of our instructors for help.
1. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
2. Nucleosome: Definition & Structure
Each of your cells has about 2 meters of linear DNA. This has to be packed into a nucleus roughly 10 micrometers in diameter. This means your nucleus must be excellent at packaging your genetic material! This lesson tells you how your DNA is packaged.
3. What Are Plasmids? - Definition, Types, Function & Characteristics
Learn about plasmids and how their DNA works to allow their host to adapt to harsh environments. Discover how plasmids are useful in modern-day genetic engineering.
4. Thomas Hunt Morgan's Fruit Fly Experiment
In 1910, American scientist Thomas Hunt Morgan conducted an experiment with a bunch of flies that changed our understanding of genetics. In this lesson, we'll look at Morgan's famous experiment and discover how it defined modern genetics.
5. Dihybrid Cross: Definition & Example
In this lesson, learn what a dihybrid cross is and see an example. Also, find out about phenotypic ratio and how it's the same for each dihybrid cross. After the lesson, test your knowledge with a quiz.
6. Determining mRNA & Gene Sequences
DNA and RNA are both important for expressing genes. This lesson will demonstrate how to determine mRNA sequences using DNA, and how to determine DNA sequences using mRNA.
7. Microarrays: Definition & Analyzing Genes on a Chip
DNA microarrays are used to quickly and efficiently measure the gene expression levels of many genes at the same time. In this lesson, you will learn how microarrays are produced and used by scientists to help identify and treat diseases.
8. Difference Between Genes & Alleles
Genes are passed from parent to child. Each parent provides one variation of the gene, called an allele, to the child. This lesson will discuss how genetic information is inherited and how it is expressed.
9. PCR: Steps Involved in Polymerase Chain Reaction
In this lesson, you will learn about the steps required to amplify DNA during PCR. The lesson will explain the role template DNA, primers, nucleotides, Taq polymerase and PCR buffer play in the denaturation, annealing and extension steps of PCR.
10. F1 Generation: Definition & Offspring
In this lesson, we will be discussing what the F1 generation is with regards to Mendelian genetics. We'll look at who discovered this F1 generation and how it is used to help us better understand inheritance as far as genes and traits are concerned.
11. Synapsis & Crossing Over in Meiosis
This lesson will cover synapsis and crossing over that occur during the process of meiosis. We'll look at exactly when these occur and how they can lead to greater genetic diversity.
12. Polygenic Inheritance: Definition & Examples
In this lesson you will learn how traits like your height, weight, hair color, and skin pigmentation are determined by the complex interaction of several different genes in a process called polygenic inheritance.
13. Nondisjunction & Aneuploidy: Definition & Examples
Learn why proper chromosome segregation is essential during meiosis. We'll see how having an extra chromosome can lead to Down Syndrome and also examine the consequences of having too few chromosomes. Disruptions to the delicate balance of cell division can have far-reaching effects.
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