About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering introductory anthropology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn introductory anthropology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding mutagens or DNA mutations
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning social science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about DNA mutations
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra social science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the DNA Mutations chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the DNA Mutations chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any DNA mutations question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a DNA mutations unit of a standard general anthropology course. Topics covered include:
- Effects of mutations on protein function
- Causes of mutation and DNA damage
- DNA mismatch repair
- Reversing DNA damage caused by irradiation and mutagens
1. What is a Point Mutation? - Definition, Causes & Types
Point mutations are changes to the genetic sequence where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted, or deleted. Explore the definition and causes of point mutations and discover the difference between the two basic types: base substitutions and insertion and deletion.
2. Effects of Mutations on Protein Function: Missense, Nonsense, and Silent Mutations
Proteins are vital for healthy cells, and protein function can be negatively affected by point mutations. Learn about missense, nonsense, and silent mutations and understand the effects mutations have on the function of proteins.
3. Effects of Frameshift Mutations: Definitions and Examples
Frameshift mutations happen when a protein is drastically changed because of an insertion or a deletion. Review the different types of mutations, the codon reading frame, and how damaging frameshift mutations really are.
4. Mutagens: How the Environment Affects Mutation Rates
Mutations are caused by environmental agents called mutagens. Explore how mutations are formed, the role of DNA polymerase in preventing mutations, and how mutations affect the real world.
5. Causes of Mutation and DNA Damage- Mutagens
Genetic mutations are caused by damage or changes to an organism's DNA sequence. Learn about chemical mutagens like base analogs, base-modifying agents, and intercalating agents, and discover how they affect and change DNA.
6. Causes of Mutation and DNA Damage- Irradiation
Along with chemical mutagens, irradiation is one of two ways DNA can be damaged, resulting in DNA mutations. Learn the definition of irradiation and two significant sources of radiation, including ionizing and non-ionizing, and ultraviolet light, and what role they can play in the cellular process of DNA mutation.
7. DNA Mismatch Repair: Correcting Errors That Happen During DNA Replication
DNA mismatch repair machinery, a natural process in living organisms, is responsible for identifying and correcting DNA replication errors. Explore DNA mismatch repair, learn how cells recognize errors and the parental strand, and understand how cell mutations can lead to cancer when mismatch repair is not working.
8. Reversing DNA Damage Caused by Mutagens and Irradiation
Due to mutagens and irradiation, DNA can easily be damaged. Luckily, that damage can be reversed with the right steps. In this lesson, learn about DNA damage, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, and direct repair.
9. DNA Repair: Fixing Double-Strand Breaks
DNA has two strands and either one or both can be broken and also repaired within a cell. Learn the two ways cells fix DNA double-strand breaks, including homologous recombination with sister chromatids, which are exact copies of chromosomes cells use to replicate DNA, or using a different method called non-homologous end-joining.
10. Deletion Mutation: Definition, Examples & Diseases
Deletion Mutation, where DNA replication misses part of a DNA molecule, can result in genetic disease. Discover the process and components involved in different types of deletion, and examples of the various diseases which may ensue.
11. Wild Type in Genetics: Definition & Traits
Identifying the genetic 'wild type' in populations is critical to understanding how that population is changing. Here we will define the 'wild type' and review some examples. At the end, you can test your knowledge with a short quiz.
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Other chapters within the Intro to Anthropology: Help and Review course
- Introduction to Anthropology: Help and Review
- Anthropology Perspectives: Help and Review
- DNA and Cell Division: Help and Review
- Genetics for Anthropologists: Help and Review
- Evolution for Anthropologists: Help and Review
- Physical Anthropology: Help and Review
- Geologic Time and Anthropology: Help and Review
- Anthropology & Ancient History: Help and Review
- Human and Cultural Migrations: Help and Review
- People and the Environment: Help and Review
- Agriculture & Domestication: Help and Review
- Ethnicity and Geography
- Studying Land Resources in Anthropology: Help and Review
- The Nature of Culture: Help and Review
- Art History and Anthropology: Help and Review
- Language and Communication in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Spatial Processes
- Settlement Patterns in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Studying Societies in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Studying Economic Systems in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Family Relationships in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Studying Political Organization in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Studying Religion in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Applications of Anthropology: Help and Review