About This Chapter
DNA Structure & Genomes - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, the lessons focus on DNA and human genomes as well as the ways in which these functions work together to make us who we are. You'll learn all about DNA, what its characteristics are and how it works inside a cell. You'll discover facts about chromosomes and genes.
As you follow along with the lessons, you'll be introduced to ribosomes and discover how DNA and proteins are related. Lessons also focus on errors in DNA and explore how they bring about a variety of mutations. After completing this chapter, you'll be able to:
- Define DNA and explain how it fits into a cell
- Understand the purpose of genomic DNA analysis
- Recall the role and structure of genes, ribosomes and proteins
- Discuss the ways in which humans get their genes and where they're located
- Realize why the double helix structure is important
- Recognize the way in which mutations affect protein function
- Explain the non-coding regions of DNA and complementary base pairing
- Know the purpose of the Human Genome Project
- Understand the role of DNA and ribosomes in protein synthesis
Follow our quick, easy-to-understand videos to learn something new or refresh your knowledge. Then take the accompanying quizzes to see how well you've mastered the material. If you'd like to review just a part of a video, use the video tabs in the Timeline to skip directly to that section. Or print out the video transcript to review the lesson at your convenience.
1. What is DNA?
In this lesson, we will learn what DNA is, what its characteristics and functions are, even where it is located and what information it contains. We'll also learn how the double helix is created. Find out more.
2. Basic Genetics: The Genome & Chromosomes
There are approximately 3 billion bases in the human genome. In this lesson, you'll learn more about the genome and its organization into chromosomes. We think about DNA often as the blueprint for life, but we can also think of it as the recipe for life with the nucleus being the library.
3. How is DNA Organized into Chromosomes? - Structure & Function
Explore the structure of chromosomes and see how DNA fits inside the nucleus of the cell. In this lesson, you'll learn about histones, chromatin and nucleosomes.
4. What Is a Gene? - Definition & Structure
Genes are little codes found in our cells that make up who we are. This lesson covers where genes are located, how we get our genes, and the functions of genes.
5. Genomic DNA Analysis
Your genes are what make you who you are, but they also make you a human. Studying genes and genomes allows scientists to better understand not only our own species, but how we are related to other species in the world as well.
6. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
7. Complementary Base Pairing: Definition & Explanation
Explore the composition and structure of DNA molecules. Learn how DNA molecules are composed of four different types of nucleotides that pair with each other in a very specific, complementary manner.
8. What Is the Role of DNA in Protein Synthesis?
What purpose does DNA serve inside the cell? How does DNA contribute to protein synthesis? Learn the answers to these questions and more in this lesson.
9. Role of Ribosomes in Protein Synthesis
Protein plays a huge role in our bodies, but how it is made? This lesson describes how ribosomes read the message hidden within our genetic code in order to produce protein. A lesson summary and brief quiz are included.
10. Proteins I: Structure and Function
We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.
11. Mutations: When DNA Is Copied Wrong
In this lesson, we will learn how mutations, or errors in DNA, come about, what kinds of effects they may have, and how they can impact populations as a whole.
12. Effects of Mutations on Protein Function: Missense, Nonsense, and Silent Mutations
How does a tiny point mutation change the way a protein works? What are the consequences of base substitutions? In this lesson, we'll use an imaginary creature to explore missense, nonsense and silent mutations.
13. Non-Coding Regions of DNA: Sequences & Explanation
In biology we learn that DNA is the blueprint for life. However, 98% of your DNA does not code for proteins. This non-coding DNA has been called useless, worthless, in a word, 'junk DNA.' But is it really worthless? Read this lesson and find out.
14. What is the Human Genome Project? - Definition, Purpose & Benefits
We often hear about scientific research being done but may not truly understand what that entails. This is not one of those times. The Human Genome Project has allowed many breakthroughs in genetic research that affect us in a very tangible way, right here, right now.
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Other chapters within the GCSE Biology: Practice & Study Guide course
- The Process of Scientific Thinking
- Steps of the Scientific Method
- Analyzing & Evaluating Scientific Data
- Mathematics in Science
- Scientific Vocabulary & Measurement
- Cell Structure & Differentiation
- Understanding Cell Division
- Understanding Cell Transportation
- Basic Components of Living Things
- Structure & Function of the Digestive System
- The Human Circulatory System
- Non-Communicable Diseases Overview
- Communicable Disease Overview
- Disease Defense, Prevention & Treatment
- Plant Tissues & Organs
- Plant Disease & Defenses
- Homeostasis & the Human Body
- Human Nervous System Overview
- Hormones in the Endocrine & Urinary Systems
- Hormones & Reproduction
- Plant Hormones
- Sexual & Asexual Reproduction
- Genetic Inheritance
- Genetics Disorders
- Genetic Variation & Evolution
- Genetic Engineering & Cloning
- Theories of Biology
- Evidence Supporting Evolution
- Classification of Living Organisms
- Ecology & Biodiversity
- Trophic Levels & Biomass Energy
- Nutrient Cycles in an Ecosystem
- Human Impacts on Biodiversity & Ecosystems
- Food Production & Sustainability
- GCSE Biology Flashcards