Ch 33: DNA Transcription & Translation - ORELA Middle Grades General Science

About This Chapter

Prepare for the ORELA Middle Grades General Science test in Oregon with the help of expert instruction. You can review video lessons to refresh your knowledge of DNA transcription and translation as you study for the exam.

DNA Transcription & Translation: ORELA Middle Grades General Science - Chapter Summary

Take advantage of this in-depth look at DNA transcription and translation to ease the process of studying for ORELA assessment. The lessons serve as a way to ensure you're able to address the following on the test:

  • Examining protein synthesis in the cell and the central dogma
  • Understanding the transcription of the messenger RNA from DNA
  • Exploring regulation of gene expression and how an operon controls transcription in a prokaryotic cell
  • Analyzing RNA processing in a eukaryotic cell and making sense of the genetic code
  • Describing the genetic code that translates RNA into amino acids
  • Explaining codon recognition, genetic engineering and a DNA plasmid
  • Discussing the role of ribosomes and peptide bonds in genetic translation

Once you've entered this chapter, you can scroll the lessons to watch them in the order that best suits your studies. A timeline is available below each video that allows you to skip to key topics within the lessons.

DNA Transcription & Translation: ORELA Middle Grades General Science Objectives

This chapter prepares you to answer questions about DNA transcription and translation on the ORELA Middle Grades General Science assessment. Lesson topics are found in the life science content domain, which constitutes about 25% of the total test. In addition to watching the videos in this chapter, you can test your comprehension of the subject area by taking self-assessment quizzes and a chapter exam. Experts are available to answer any questions you have about the lessons.

The assessment ensures that you fully understand general science as you prepare to secure licensure and teach the subject to students in the middle grades. There are 150 multiple-choice questions on the computer-based test. To pass, you must earn a minimum score of 228.

12 Lessons in Chapter 33: DNA Transcription & Translation - ORELA Middle Grades General Science
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.

Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.

Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.

How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.

RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons

5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons

In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.

What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?

6. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?

How is RNA translated into a series of amino acids? Learn the language of the genetic code, explore a codon dictionary, and discover some basics of genetics in this lesson on translation.

Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition

7. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition

Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.

Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code

8. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code

How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.

The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation

9. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation

Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.

Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

10. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.

What is Genetic Engineering? - Definition and Examples

11. What is Genetic Engineering? - Definition and Examples

How do we make the insulin used by diabetic patients? In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of how genetic engineering can be used to transform a bacterial host cell into a genetically-modified organism that produces human insulin.

What is a DNA Plasmid? - Importance to Genetic Engineering

12. What is a DNA Plasmid? - Importance to Genetic Engineering

DNA plasmids play an integral part in most genetic engineering experiments. In this lesson, you'll learn about key features of a plasmid, such as a multiple cloning site, an origin of replication, and a selectable marker.

Chapter Practice Exam
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Practice Final Exam
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