About This Chapter
Early Development to Childbirth in Humans - Chapter Summary
The lessons in this chapter provide an overview of early development to childbirth in humans. You will review hormones of the placenta and fetal development in the first, second, and third trimesters. These engaging lessons also cover the three stages of labor. After completing the chapter, you should be prepared to:
- Detail the process of fertilization in humans
- Explain the morula and blastula within early embryonic development
- Recall how placenta is formed
- Discuss how a fetus remains nourished and healthy before birth
- Describe support systems that protect developing vertebrates
- Recount a key process involved in the development of multicellular organisms
- Explain how hormones and cells are involved in milk production
- List symptoms and causes of miscarriages
The format of these lessons will help you quickly grasp concepts related to early development to childbirth in humans. You can review all the lessons in order, or just look at the ones that cover the topics you need. A brief quiz is available for each lesson to test your knowledge, and you can print the quizzes as worksheets.
1. Fertilization and Zygote Formation: Definition and Processes
Follow the male's sperm and the female's egg on their way to meet each other in this lesson that takes you through the process of fertilization in humans. Learn about the obstacles the sperm must get through before it can fertilize the egg.
2. Early Embryonic Development: The Morula and Blastula
This lesson on the early stages of mammalian development covers the processes following fertilization, such as cleavage, the morula formation and blastula formation. Watch to learn what the inner cell mass, trophoblast cells and blastocyst are, as well as their functions within embryonic development.
3. Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation
This lesson will cover the journey the mammalian embryo first makes after it has been fertilized. Learn how maternal blood moves through the embryo, and how the placenta is formed.
4. The Placenta and the Fetus: Structure and Function
Have you ever wondered how a baby eats before it's born or if babies go to the bathroom while still inside their mother? In this lesson, you will learn about the placenta and how it works to ensure a fetus stays well-nourished and healthy before birth.
5. Amniotic Fluid, The Amnion, and the Yolk Sac
From a chick developing inside an egg to a human baby growing in its mother's womb, all developing vertebrates rely on a support system to protect them, feed them, supply them with oxygen, remove wastes, and do much, much more to ensure that the embryo grows and develops into a fully functional organism. In this lesson, you'll learn about the different parts of that support system and some of the things that they do.
6. Gastrulation and the 3 Germ Layers (Ectoderm, Endoderm & Mesoderm)
Gastrulation is a key process in embryonic development - it's how a simple ball of cells begins to grow into a fully functioning being! Watch this lesson to learn about a key process in the development of almost all multicellular organisms.
7. Hormones of the Placenta: Estrogen, Progesterone & hCG
The placenta is an endocrine gland that is only present during pregnancy. In this lesson, you will learn about the hormones it produces, including human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), progesterone, estrogen, and human placental lactogen (hPL).
8. Fetal Development in the First Trimester: Stages & Timeline
We all know it takes 9 months for the baby to develop inside the mother's womb, but have you ever thought about how or when all those different organs and systems appear? When does the fetal heart start beating or the brain develop? Find out in this lesson covering the first trimester of pre-natal development.
9. Second Trimester Fetal Development
The growth and development of a baby is an amazingly detailed and complex process. It starts with a ball of cells, which grows all the way to a full grown, eight pound baby in nine months! In this lesson, learn about what happens during the second trimester of pregnancy.
10. Third Trimester Fetal Development
This is it - the last step, the last few months before the birth of a baby! Learn about the changes the developing fetus goes through during the third and final trimester.
11. Childbirth: The Role of Hormones in Labor and Delivery
How does a mother's body know when it is time to give birth? How does the labor process begin and end? Learn the answers to these questions in this lesson on the hormones involved in childbirth.
12. The Three Stages of Labor: Dilation, Expulsion & Placental
You may think of the process of labor and childbirth as one long event, but it is actually divided into different stages. Learn about each of the three stages of labor in this lesson.
13. The Neonatal Period: Lactation and Nursing
Ever wonder how the mother's body knows when to produce milk for her coming baby? Learn about the hormones and cells involved in milk production and release in this lesson on lactation and nursing.
14. Common Causes of Miscarriage or Spontaneous Abortion
We all know that sometimes pregnancies don't go as planned. Occasionally, for no apparent reason, the developing baby is miscarried. Learn about some of the symptoms and causes of miscarriages in this lesson.
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Other chapters within the Alberta Education Diploma - Biology 30: Exam Prep & Study Guide course
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- Genotypes & Phenotypes
- Genomes, Genes & Alleles
- Genetic Inheritance & Pedigrees
- DNA Sequencing & Replication
- Transcription & Translation in DNA & RNA
- Genetic Variability & Analytic Methods
- Ecology, Ecosystems & the Environment
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