About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering college earth science material will benefit from taking this course. You will be able to grasp the subject matter faster, retain critical knowledge longer and earn better grades. You're in the right place if you:
- Have fallen behind in understanding Earth's history or working with galaxy formation.
- Need an efficient way to learn about Earth's history.
- Learn best with engaging auditory and visual tools.
- Struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD.
- Experience difficulty understanding your teachers.
- Missed class time and need to catch up.
- Can't access extra science learning resources at school.
How it works:
- Start at the beginning, or identify the topics that you need help with.
- Watch and learn from fun videos, reviewing as needed.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Submit questions to one of our instructors for personalized support if you need extra help.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Earth History chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Earth History chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any relevant question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- What are the origins of the universe?
- What is the scientific support for the Big Bang Theory?
- How do galaxies form?
- How did the Earth and moon form?
- What are the parts of the sun?
- What features are associated with earth's most important eons and eras?
1. Origins of the Universe: The Big Bang and Expanding & Contracting Universes
Students will learn the origins of the universe, the Big Bang theory, the timeline of the universe, how the universe is still expanding to this day, and what astronomers expect the universe to look like in the future.
2. Evidence for the Big Bang Theory: Background Radiation, Red-Shift and Expansion
Discover what evidence exists to support the Big Bang theory of the birth of the universe. Learn how cosmic background radiation, the red shift of light and the ongoing expansion of the universe led scientists to believe that the universe was started with the Big Bang.
3. Galaxy Formation: Spiral, Elliptical & Irregular Galaxies
This lesson explains how galaxies form, starting with the Big Bang. You'll also learn about the solar nebula hypothesis and three galaxy types, including spiral, elliptical, and irregular galaxies.
4. Formation of the Earth: Theories
In this lesson, the theory of how the planet Earth formed will be discussed. This includes looking at how it differentiated into three layers, how it formed its atmosphere, water, and land features, and how it continues to evolve today.
5. Formation of the Moon: Theories
Explore the four major theories on the formation of the Moon. The theories include the fission theory, capture theory, condensation theory and giant impact theory. Also look at both information supporting and flaws found in these theories.
6. Structure of the Sun
Discover the layers of the sun, including the core, radiative zone, convective zone, photosphere, chromosphere, and corona. Find out which layers you can see from Earth. Investigate what sunspots and solar flares are.
7. Stages of the Sun's Life Cycle
Discover our sun, the provider of energy for life on Earth. Learn how the sun was born, how it lives as a main sequence star, how it will age into a red giant and how it will die as a white dwarf.
8. The History of Life on Earth: Timeline and Characteristics of Major Eras
The Earth is over 4.6 billion years old. Ever wonder what happened during certain time periods in that large amount of time? We will look at the major eons and eras of Earth's history along with important characteristics of each.
9. Phanerozoic Eon: Facts & Timeline
The Phanerozoic Eon is the current eon in Earth's history. The Phanerozoic began 542 million years ago with the Cambrian explosion and continues to the present. This lesson covers the events that have occurred during this time span.
10. The Cenozoic Era: Definition, Time Period & Facts
The Cenozoic Era spans the previous 65 million years of Earth's history, beginning with the extinction of flightless dinosaurs and continuing up to the present. This lesson covers the events that shaped the Cenozoic Era.
11. Transitional Fossils: Definition & Examples
Transitional fossils can be used to help us understand evolutionary trends. In this lesson we define transitional fossils and provide examples of their use.
12. Thyreophora: Characteristics & Family
In this lesson we will discuss Thyrephora, which are the four-legged armored herbivores from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. These extinct reptiles are ancestors of birds.
13. Taiga Biome: Environmental Issues & Threats
In this lesson, we'll be learning about the cool, wooded forests in the North, the taiga. We'll look at the environmental issues facing this ecosystem, threats from human activity, and potential solutions.
14. What are Major Threats to Biodiversity?
This lesson first defines biodiversity for you. Then you'll learn about the numerous threats to this biodiversity, such as deforestation, poaching and many others.
15. Threats to the Savanna: Environmental Problems & Solutions
In this lesson, we'll be learning about what the problems humans are causing in the savanna ecosystem. After learning about how global warming, agricultural practices, and poaching are harming the savanna, we'll look at some solutions to preserve this ecosystem.
16. Threats to Estuaries: Human Impact & Problems
Estuaries are where rivers meet the sea. They are biologically important but are at risk from human influences and activities. In this lesson learn about how humans impact estuaries and some of the problems it causes.
17. Top Threats to Humanity & Existential Risks
Read this lesson to learn why our climate is a top threat to humanity. You'll also see how natural disasters, water crises, and weapons can endanger the human species.
Earning College Credit
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Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Other chapters within the College Earth Science: Help and Review course
- Earth Science Basics: Help and Review
- Geologic Time: Help and Review
- Properties of Matter: Help and Review
- Earth's Spheres and Internal Structure: Help and Review
- Plate Tectonics: Help and Review
- Minerals and Rocks: Help and Review
- Igneous Rocks: Help and Review
- Volcanoes: Help and Review
- Weathering and Erosion: Help and Review
- Sedimentary Rocks - A Deeper Look: Help and Review
- Metamorphic Rocks - A Deeper Look: Help and Review
- Rock Deformation and Mountain Building: Help and Review
- Water Balance: Help and Review
- Running Water: Help and Review
- Ground Water: Help and Review
- Glaciers: Help and Review
- Oceans: Help and Review
- Coastal Hazards: Help and Review
- The Atmosphere: Help and Review
- Weather and Storms: Help and Review
- Earthquakes: Help and Review
- Energy Resources: Help and Review