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Ch 16: Earth's Geology and Structure

About This Chapter

Let our video lessons and quizzes teach you about the geology behind phenomena like volcanoes and earthquakes. Explore the three different rock groups and the various properties of minerals.

Earth's Geology and Structure - Chapter Summary

Our experienced instructors open this chapter with a definition of the theory of Pangaea. You'll then learn about different types of volcanic hazards and how to prevent these natural disasters from occurring. Lessons also cover earthquake aftershock and foreshock patterns, as well as the different types of destruction caused by earthquakes.

As you continue through the chapter, you'll discover the differences between rocks and minerals. Lessons will explain the three major rock groups. You'll study the optical properties of minerals, including luster, light transmission, color and streak. The chapter ends with lessons on how to determine mineral strength, density and gravity. You'll look at mineral hardness and tenacity, as well as what occurs during mineral cleavage and fracture. Concepts covered in the chapter's lessons include:

  • Theory of Pangaea
  • Different types of volcanic hazards
  • Earthquake aftershocks and foreshocks
  • Destruction caused by earthquakes
  • Differences between rocks and minerals
  • Three major rock groups
  • Optical properties of minerals
  • Mineral strength, density and gravity

These online video lessons are taught by experienced instructors with knowledge of their field. Self-assessment quizzes are included at the end of each lesson, and you may access lesson transcripts if you have any questions about the content provided. You may also access links to key terms and concepts presented in the chapter.

7 Lessons in Chapter 16: Earth's Geology and Structure
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
What is Pangaea? - Theory & Definition

1. What is Pangaea? - Theory & Definition

The continents you know have existed for a long time, but not in their current locations. In fact, over 200 million years ago Pangaea broke apart by plate tectonic movement to form the continents we see today.

Aftershocks & Foreshocks of an Earthquake

2. Aftershocks & Foreshocks of an Earthquake

An earthquake is not an isolated event of ground shaking. Foreshocks and aftershocks occur with most earthquakes, and in this video lesson you will learn about them and how they are part of the overall process.

Rocks and Minerals: Definitions and Differences

3. Rocks and Minerals: Definitions and Differences

Can you tell the difference between a rock and a mineral? What makes a mineral so much different from a rock? Explore these questions in depth, and learn how we classify rocks and minerals.

Types of Rocks: The Three Major Rock Groups

4. Types of Rocks: The Three Major Rock Groups

Did you know that lava is molten rock that reaches the earth's surface? Furthermore, did you know that rocks exist in three general forms: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic? This lesson describes these rock types and examples of each.

Optical Properties of Minerals: Luster, Light Transmission, Color & Streak

5. Optical Properties of Minerals: Luster, Light Transmission, Color & Streak

Minerals are conveniently identified based on their physical properties. These properties include luster, ability to transmit light, color and streak. This lesson will describe each of these properties and examples of each.

Mineral Density & Specific Gravity: Definition and Properties

6. Mineral Density & Specific Gravity: Definition and Properties

Mineral density and specific gravity are similar properties used by mineralologists to identify minerals. This lesson describes a common practice used to determine density and specific gravity.

Convergent Boundary: Definition, Facts & Examples

7. Convergent Boundary: Definition, Facts & Examples

In this lesson, you will learn the meaning of the term 'convergent boundary' in the context of plate tectonics. A number of features and examples of convergent boundaries will be introduced. A short quiz will follow.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
Not Taken
Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
Not Taken

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