About This Chapter
Earth's Internal Structure & Processes - Chapter Summary
If you would like to learn about the internal structure and processes of the Earth, go through these lessons that teach you essential facts from geology that will help you better understand the planet that we live on.
These lessons are a great way to learn about different phenomena found in or on the Earth itself, such as geologic folds and faults, as well as the scientific backgrounds on these topics, like evidence that supports the theory of plate tectonics. You can also learn how volcanoes are formed and see what causes an earthquake. Specific topics also covered in this chapter include:
- The crust, mantle and core of the Earth
- The Earth's shape and the effects of gravity, density and stress
- Types of landforms
- Geological maps
- The Earth's magnetic field
- Plate tectonics, paleomagnetism and continental drift
- Types of faults and folds
- Reasons for a volcanic eruption
- Components and epicenter of an earthquake
- Seismic waves
You can test your understanding of these topics by answering the questions found in the chapter's practice quizzes and final exam once you complete the lessons. If you would like further clarification on specific topics related to the structure and processes of Earth, you have the ability to message the lesson instructors. Make sure that you use your personal Dashboard to see how much progress you are making as you complete different lessons.
1. Earth's Internal Layers: Crust, Mantle & Core
Earth is made up of several different layers, each with unique properties. In this video lesson, you will identify each layer of Earth and how it relates to Earth as a whole.
2. Shape of the Earth: Density, Stress & Gravity
This lesson will seek to explain geodesy and the Earth's shape. In doing so, it will highlight the concepts of gravity, density, and stress, as well as the role they play in the field of geodesy.
3. Landform: Definition & Types
Read about landforms and their major features. Learn the differences between formations like mountains and hills, valleys and canyons. (Hint: It has to do with their form.)
4. Geologic Maps: Topographic, Cross-Sectional & Structural
Geology is a very visual science, and the use of a variety of map types is common. This lesson will differentiate between three types of geologic maps: topographic, cross-sectional, and structural.
5. Earth's Magnetic Field: Formation, Changes & Impact
Earth has a magnetic field surrounding it. In this lesson, we will go through what creates it, how it changes, and what impact the change has on our planet.
6. Plate Tectonics: A Unified Theory for Change of the Earth's Surface
After many years of trying to solve the mystery of the moving continents, enough data and evidence was collected to develop a unifying theory of how the surface of the earth changes. It's called plate tectonics.
7. Evidence for the Mechanism of Continental Drift
As scientists began to explore the ocean floor after World War II, they discovered many new clues to help them solve a mystery that had begun decades earlier - how the continents moved about on the surface of the earth.
8. Paleomagnetism and Hot Spots: Evidence for Plate Tectonics
Paleomagnetism is the study of past magnetic fields. Hot spots are fixed pockets of heat that well up to form volcanic features. Learn how paleomagnetism and the study of hot spots provide evidence that supports the theory of plate tectonics.
9. Geological Folds: Definition, Causes & Types
Under the right conditions and over millions of years, rock can be deformed so that it is folded into a different shape. In this video lesson, you will identify different types of folds as well as what causes them to occur in rock.
10. Geological Faults: Definition, Causes & Types
In this video lesson, you will identify different faults and the types of stress that cause them. You will also see examples of the effects these faults have on the landscape.
11. What is a Volcano? - Definition & Eruptions
Volcanoes are vents that allow lava, rock fragments and gases to escape from layers beneath the earth's surface. Learn how volcanoes form both on land and underwater and why they erupt.
12. What is an Earthquake? - Definition and Components
Earthquakes are well known for the damage and destruction they leave behind. But what is an earthquake? In this video lesson you will learn about what causes earthquakes and the various components involved in these powerful natural disasters.
13. The Causes of Earthquakes
In this video lesson you will learn what causes earthquakes and where they occur. You will also understand the theory of elastic rebound, and how this relates to movement of the earth's crust.
14. Seismic Wave: Definition, Types & Frequency
In this lesson, you will learn what seismic waves are, the various types of seismic waves, and their frequencies. You will learn about P-waves, S-waves, Rayleigh waves and Love waves. A short quiz will follow.
15. What is the Epicenter of an Earthquake? - Definition & Location
This lesson will explain what an epicenter is in the context of earthquakes, where it is located, and how that location is determined. A short quiz will follow.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the Pennsylvania Grades 4-8 - Science Subject Concentration (5159): Practice & Study Guide course
- Scientific Inquiry & Methodology
- Scientific Data Collection & Analysis
- Science Laboratory Equipment & Safety
- Major Developments & Historical Figures in Science
- Basic Principles of Matter & Energy
- Relationships Between Matter & Energy
- Structure of an Atom
- Interdisciplinary Applications of Energy & Matter
- Impact of Science & Technology on the Environment
- Energy Production & Resource Use
- Science & Technology Used in Everyday Life
- Science & Public Health
- Mechanics in Physics
- Analyzing Motion & Forces
- Electricity & Magnetic Forces
- Wave Characteristics & Phenomena
- Light, Sound & Waves
- Elements & The Periodic Table
- Chemical Bonding & Simple Chemical Compounds
- Interpreting Chemical Formulas
- Matter & Phase Changes
- Balancing & Using Chemical Equations
- Acid-Base Chemistry
- Understanding Solutions & Solubility
- Structure & Function of Cells & Organelles
- Understanding Biochemistry
- Understanding Genetics
- Theory & Mechanisms of Evolution
- Hierarchical Classification of Living Things
- Plant Structure & Function
- Animal & Human Anatomy & Physiology
- Basics of Ecology
- Earth's Surface Materials
- Geologic History
- Earth's Hydrosphere
- Earth's Bodies of Water
- Basics of Meteorology
- Earth's Climate & Seasons
- The Solar System & The Earth-Moon-Sun Relationship
- Galaxies & the Universe
- Space Exploration & Technology
- Pennsylvania Grades 4-8 - Science Subject Concentration Flashcards