About This Chapter
Earth's Surface Materials - Chapter Summary
This collection of geology lessons helps you review the materials on the Earth's surface. You'll begin by reviewing concepts such as the rock cycle, mineral properties, erosion, dispersion and weathering. As you continue through the chapter, you'll examine several topics related to soil structure, permeability and runoff. After completing the lessons in the chapter, you should be able to:
- Identify the characteristics of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks
- Recognize properties of various types of minerals
- Understand the effect erosion and deposition have on landforms
- Explain the concept of weathering
- Describe the structure of different types of soil
- Know the characteristics of a soil profile
- Assess the impact permeability and porosity have on soil and rocks
- Summarize the process of runoff and infiltration and their role in the water cycle
This chapter includes expert instruction from experienced geology instructors who crafted each lesson with simplicity in mind. This straightforward approach helps you quickly review geology concepts and understand the most important definitions and concepts. The chapter includes interactive practice quizzes to help you check your understanding of the material and you can print out the lesson transcripts to follow along with the video lessons. The material is accessible at anytime that's convenient for you via a desktop, laptop, smartphone or tablet.
1. Rock Cycle: Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks
In this lesson, we will discuss the three main types of rocks and how they are formed. The lesson also gives an introduction into how matter locked in rocks can be cycled through the earth.
2. What Are Minerals? - Types, Properties & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn about minerals and their properties. You will also understand the importance and everyday use of different types of minerals found on Earth.
3. Effect of Erosion and Deposition on Landforms
Landforms are constantly being broken down and reformed by the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition. In this lesson, we explore chemical and physical weathering and how the face of the earth gets changed.
4. Weathering: Definition & Explanation
Discover how rocks and minerals are broken down by chemical and mechanical forms of weathering. Learn about some of the many geological formations created by weathering, from large caves to beautiful arches made of rock.
5. What is Soil? - Definition, Structure & Types
Soil is the material found on the surface of the earth that is composed of organic and inorganic material. Soil varies due to its structure and composition. Learn about the different types of soil and soil structures in this video lesson.
6. Soil Profile: Definition, Development & Types
Explore the characteristics of soil profiles, their horizons and how they develop. Then you can use this knowledge to help you determine the conditions under which the soil developed and understand the history of the surrounding landscape.
7. Permeability & Porosity: Definition & Impact on Soil & Rocks
Most of Earth's fresh water is actually underground. How soils hold water as well as allow it to move underground are discussed in this lesson, as is the impact of these characteristics on the Earth's underground rocks and soil.
8. Runoff & Infiltration: Definition & Process
When water falls to the ground as precipitation, it can either fill the spaces in the soil below ground or run across the surface. In this video lesson, you will learn about the processes of infiltration and runoff, and how they are an important part of the water cycle on Earth.
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