About This Chapter
Elements, Compounds, Mixtures & Solutions - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Elements, the building blocks of all matter, are everywhere you look. In this chapter, you can find out about elements and learn how to write them as symbols. These lessons also explore the various types of compounds and show how they bond and break apart while moving between solid, liquid and gaseous states. In the late 1800's, Francois Raoult studied vapor pressure and developed an equation, now called Raoult's Law, to discover the vapor pressure of a solution. In this chapter, you can meet this scientist and learn all about solutions, by investigating molarity, solubility and colligative properties. Upon completion of these lessons, you should be able to:
- Describe elements and explain how they form building blocks for other things
- Explain how elements make up compounds and discuss the properties of compounds
- Understand solutions and name several types
- Calculate dilutions, molality and molarity
- Use properties of solutions to determine molar mass
|Using Colligative Properties to Determine Molar Mass||Learn how to use freezing point depression information to figure the molar mass of unidentified substances.|
|Calculating Dilution of Solutions||Get the formula to dilute a stock solution and find out how to get the right volume and concentration using a volumetric flask. Learn how molarity is used in a dilution equation.|
|Colligative Properties and Raoult's Law||Understand how osmotic pressure and vapor pressure are colligative properties. Use Raoult's Law to find the vapor pressure of a solution.|
|Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration||Understand these expressions of concentration and how to calculate each.|
|The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and Definition||Define miscible and immiscible, in connection to liquids. Understand dissolution and the features that affect its rate.|
|Solubility and Solubility Curves||Define solubility, saturated, unsaturated and supersaturated.|
|Solutions, Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes||Find out how solutions are formed and how to calculate their molarity and mass percents.|
|Chromatography, Distillation and Filtration: Methods of Separating Mixtures||Understand various ways mixtures may be separated.|
|What Are Elements?||Understand how elements provide the structural basis of other things.|
|What Are Compounds?||Explain how elements make up a compound. Discuss common properties of compounds.|
|Breaking Down Compounds||Discuss the methods for separating compounds.|
|Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation||Learn the rules for naming binary covalent compounds.|
|Naming Ionic Compounds: Simple Binary, Transition Metal & Polyatomic Ion Compounds||Name all ionic compounds. Understand cations and anions.|
|Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy and Properties||Learn about melting and boiling points, electricity conduction and crystal formation of ionic compounds.|
1. Using Colligative Properties to Determine Molar Mass
In this lesson, we will explore the effect of colligative properties on a solution. We will learn how to calculate freezing point depression and see how it can be used to calculate the molar mass of an unknown substance.
2. Calculating Dilution of Solutions
Learn what a solution is and how to properly dilute a new solution from a stock solution. Learn the dilution equation that combines molarity, the volume of stock solution and desired solution to determine how much stock solution is needed for the new solution.
3. Colligative Properties and Raoult's Law
Learn how vapor pressure and osmotic pressure are colligative properties. Learn Raoult's Law and how to use it to determine the vapor pressure of a solution. Learn the equation for determining osmotic pressure and how to use it to determine the molar mass of a substance.
4. Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration
Learn the abbreviations and meaning of molarity and molality. Then apply what you have learned by going over some sample calculations with given concentrations.
5. The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and Definition
Learn what dissolution is and the factors that affect the rate of dissolution, such as temperature, surface area, polarity and pressure. Learn what miscible and immiscible mean in regards to liquids.
6. Solubility and Solubility Curves
Learn what solubility is as well as the definitions of 'saturated,' 'unsaturated' and 'supersaturated.' Learn how to determine the solubility of a substance in water by using a solubility curve. Discover the effects of pressure and temperature on the solubility of liquids, solids and gases.
7. Solutions, Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
Learn what a solution is and how it is formed. Learn how to express the concentration of a solution in terms of molarity, molality and mass percent. Discover the differences between an electrolyte and a nonelectrolyte.
8. Chromatography, Distillation and Filtration: Methods of Separating Mixtures
What are some ways that mixtures can be separated? Watch this video to explore several examples of ways you can separate a mixture into its individual components.
9. What Are Elements?
Look around you. What do you see? Elements are everywhere. They are the building blocks of all matter on Earth. In this lesson, we will discuss what an element is, how elements are written as symbols, and how elements are the building blocks of all matter.
10. Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation
Learn about covalent bonds, how covalent compounds are formed and the properties inherent to covalent compounds, such as low melting and boiling points, in this lesson. Also, learn what rules to follow to name simple covalent compounds.
11. Naming Ionic Compounds: Simple Binary, Transition Metal & Polyatomic Ion Compounds
An important part of dealing with chemical compounds is knowing how to refer to them. Learn how to name all ionic compounds, including simple binary compounds, compounds containing transition metals and compounds containing polyatomic ions.
12. Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy and Properties
In this lesson, you'll learn about ionic compounds and how they form. Additionally, you'll learn the properties of ionic compounds, such as their high melting and boiling points, their ability to conduct electricity, and the fact that they form crystals.
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Other chapters within the DSST Principles of Physical Science: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- Newton's Laws of Motion
- Energy and Momentum
- Thermodynamics in Physical Science
- Waves and Optics
- Electric Power & Electricity
- Properties of Matter in Chemistry
- Kinetics in Chemistry
- Bonding in Chemistry
- Gases & Gas Laws
- The Periodic Table
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids in Chemistry
- Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure
- Acids, Bases and Reactions in Chemistry
- Chemistry Lab Basics
- DSST Informational Resources
- DSST Principles of Physical Science Flashcards