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Ch 19: Elements of Grammar

About This Chapter

Watch online English video lessons and learn about possessive nouns, auxiliary verbs, predicates and more. Use the text transcripts, handy video tags and self-assessment quizzes to aid your learning.

Elements of Grammar - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

Studying the elements of grammar might sound like a daunting task, but there's no need to worry. Our instructors break this chapter down for you by going over some of the most basic parts of speech and the rules for their use. They also delve into the parts of a sentence so you can learn how to easily spot errors and write clear sentences that are grammatically sound. Lessons in the chapter are designed to help you identify the following:

  • Noun and pronoun types
  • Pronoun-antecedent agreement
  • Verb forms and types
  • Adjectives and adverbs
  • Subject-verb agreement
  • Misplaced modifiers
  • Parallel sentences

Video Objectives
What Are Nouns? - Definition, Types & Examples Identify the difference between common and proper nouns. Explore how they're used in a sentence.
Singular and Plural Nouns: Definitions, Rules & Examples Peruse examples of singular and plural nouns as well as irregular plural nouns. Examine rules for making a singular noun plural.
What Are Possessive Nouns? - Examples, Definition & Types Practice turning singular and plural nouns into their possessive forms. Learn how to avoid confusing possessive nouns with plural nouns.
What Are Collective Nouns? Provide examples of collective nouns used to refer to a group. Find out how to make them agree with a sentence's verbs and antecedents.
What Are Pronouns? - Types, Examples & Definition Explore the differences between personal, subjective and objective case pronouns. Use them to make comparisons and refer to compound subjects.
Pronouns: Relative, Reflexive, Interrogative & Possessive Identify relative, reflexive, interrogative and possessive pronouns and describe their uses.
What Are Personal Pronouns? Practice using subjective and objective personal pronouns. Learn how to make them agree in number and gender with the nouns they're replacing.
Using Nouns as the Subject of a Sentence: Grammar Rules & Examples Recognize a sentence's simple, complete or compound subjects.
Possessive Pronouns and Contractions: Definition & Examples Differentiate between contractions and possessive pronouns. Learn strategies to avoid confusing the two.
What is an Antecedent? - Definition, Meaning & Examples Explain how to make pronouns and antecedents agree in number and gender. Peruse examples of indefinite pronouns and get suggestions for avoiding vague pronoun references.
Compound Antecedents: Definition & Examples Outline rules for determining when to use a plural or singular pronoun when referring to a compound antecedent.
Personal Pronouns and Antecedents: Number Agreement Follow steps for assuring you've chosen the correct personal pronoun to replace a noun that refers to a specific thing or place.
Action, Linking and Auxiliary Verbs: Definitions, Functions & Examples Explain the differences between action, linking and auxiliary verbs and get examples of each.
Verb Forms: Participles and Infinitives Learn which types of verbs are coupled with 'to' and which verb forms end with -ed or -ing.
Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs: Examples, Sentences & Exercises Explore the different ways in which adverbs and adjectives modify nouns. Look into the proper use of comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs.
Indefinite and Definite Articles: Definition and Examples Discover when and when not to use indefinite and definite articles, including 'a', 'an' and 'the'.
What Are Misplaced Modifiers and Dangling Modifiers? Define modifiers and explain how to avoid writing sentences that include misplaced or dangling modifiers.
What Are Predicates? - Definition and Examples Identify the subject and predicate of a sentence.
Parallelism: How to Write and Identify Parallel Sentences Use coordinating and correlating conjunctions, list items, clauses and verb tenses to spot sentences that aren't parallel.
How to Identify the Subject of a Sentence Practice picking out sentences' simple, multiple and implied subjects.
Verb Tense and Subject-Verb Agreement Learn to correct subject-verb agreement errors in sentences written in present and past tense.
Subject-Verb Agreement: Using Uncommon Singular and Plural Nouns and Pronouns Spot subject-verb agreement errors in sentences using collective nouns and indefinite pronouns.
Sentence Agreement: Avoiding Faulty Collective Ownership Identify and correct sentences implying ownership of one thing by multiple people.

25 Lessons in Chapter 19: Elements of Grammar
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
What Are Nouns? - Definition, Types & Examples

1. What Are Nouns? - Definition, Types & Examples

A noun is a part of speech that identifies a person, place, thing, or idea. In this lesson, in addition to learning how to identify nouns, you'll learn the difference between proper and common nouns and a bit about how nouns function in sentences.

Singular & Plural Nouns: Definitions, Rules & Examples

2. Singular & Plural Nouns: Definitions, Rules & Examples

This video takes a look at how singular nouns are turned into plural nouns. Check it out to learn about regular and irregular plurals as well as important definitions, rules, and exceptions.

What Are Possessive Nouns? - Examples, Definition & Types

3. What Are Possessive Nouns? - Examples, Definition & Types

This video explains what you need to know to use apostrophes to make singular and plural nouns possessive. You'll also learn how to avoid mixing up your plurals and possessives.

What Are Collective Nouns?

4. What Are Collective Nouns?

In this lesson, you'll find out what collective nouns are as well as how to ensure that you're using the right verbs and pronouns in sentences that contain them.

What Are Pronouns? - Types, Examples & Definition

5. What Are Pronouns? - Types, Examples & Definition

In this lesson, we'll learn about pronouns in general, and take a look at two types of personal pronouns: subjective case and objective case pronouns. Knowing which case of pronoun you'll need can help you avoid common pronoun errors.

Pronouns: Relative, Reflexive, Interrogative & Possessive

6. Pronouns: Relative, Reflexive, Interrogative & Possessive

In this lesson, we'll look at relative, reflexive, interrogative and possessive pronouns. We'll do this by antagonizing our friend Gary with the whos, whats, whoms, and whichevers that make up these pronouns.

What Are Personal Pronouns?

7. What Are Personal Pronouns?

Pronouns are great for making sure debaters don't have to keep repeating the other guy's name over and over again, but they have many other uses too! In fact, pronouns, you could say, make reading readable. In part one, we'll cover personal pronouns and how they're used before moving on to more esoteric varieties.

Using Nouns as the Subject of a Sentence: Grammar Rules & Examples

8. Using Nouns as the Subject of a Sentence: Grammar Rules & Examples

A subject is an essential part of a sentence. This video explains the role that subjects play in sentences, how nouns work as subjects and the various types of subjects.

Possessive Pronouns & Contractions: Definition & Examples

9. Possessive Pronouns & Contractions: Definition & Examples

In writing, many people get possessive pronouns and contractions confused. In this lesson, we'll discuss the differences between the two, as well as how to use apostrophes in order to form contractions.

What is an Antecedent? - Definition, Meaning & Examples

10. What is an Antecedent? - Definition, Meaning & Examples

If you have a pronoun in a sentence, you'll also need to have an antecedent. In this lesson, find out what an antecedent is as well as some of the basic rules for avoiding vague pronoun references and for making sure that you have pronoun-antecedent agreement.

Compound Antecedents: Definition & Examples

11. Compound Antecedents: Definition & Examples

You may know already that an antecedent and its pronoun must agree in number. In this lesson, you'll learn about compound antecedents and the various rules involving how they can be made to agree with pronouns.

Personal Pronouns and Antecedents: Number Agreement

12. Personal Pronouns and Antecedents: Number Agreement

In this lesson, you'll learn how to avoid one of the most common grammatical mistakes in writing by learning how to ensure that all of the antecedents in your writing agree in number with the pronouns that they're matched up with.

Action, Linking and Auxiliary Verbs: Definitions, Functions & Examples

13. Action, Linking and Auxiliary Verbs: Definitions, Functions & Examples

Do you think that a verb is just a verb? Check out this lesson to learn about the differences among action verbs, linking verbs, and auxiliary/helping verbs.

Verb Forms: Participles & Infinitives

14. Verb Forms: Participles & Infinitives

Using verbs correctly involves knowing more than just how to express action in a sentence. This lesson will show you a few special types of verb forms - infinitives, present participles, and past participles - as well as how to use them.

Comparison of Adjectives & Adverbs: Examples, Sentences & Exercises

15. Comparison of Adjectives & Adverbs: Examples, Sentences & Exercises

Adjectives and adverbs are descriptive words that allow our sentences to be much more specific and interesting than they would be without them. This lesson covers the rules for using adjectives and adverbs correctly, including those used in comparisons.

Indefinite and Definite Articles: Definition and Examples

16. Indefinite and Definite Articles: Definition and Examples

Watch this video lesson on indefinite and definite articles. Find out when you should use which type of article and when you shouldn't use any article at all.

What Are Misplaced Modifiers and Dangling Modifiers?

17. What Are Misplaced Modifiers and Dangling Modifiers?

I have this recurring nightmare where all my modifiers are misplaced or dangling and everybody's laughing at me. Don't let this happen to you! Learn why modifiers are important and why putting them in the right place is even more so.

What are Predicates? - Definition and Examples

18. What are Predicates? - Definition and Examples

A predicate is a necessary component of each sentence, so it's important to know what one is and how to identify one. This lesson goes over the basics of predicates as well as how knowing about them can help answer other grammatical questions.

Parallelism: How to Write and Identify Parallel Sentences

19. Parallelism: How to Write and Identify Parallel Sentences

Sentences that aren't parallel sound funny, even if they look perfectly correct at first glance. Learn what makes a sentence parallel, how to revise a sentence to make it parallel, and how to write beautiful, balanced sentences of your own.

How to Identify the Subject of a Sentence

20. How to Identify the Subject of a Sentence

Don't pass over this lesson! You may think you know how to find subjects and verbs in a sentence, but picking them out can be harder than you think. Identifying subjects and verbs is the first step to unlocking nearly everything else about English composition.

Verb Tense & Subject-Verb Agreement

21. Verb Tense & Subject-Verb Agreement

Learn all about verb tense and subject-verb agreement in our first lesson on this tricky topic. We'll look at examples to help you understand this concept.

Subject-Verb Agreement: Using Uncommon Singular and Plural Nouns and Pronouns

22. Subject-Verb Agreement: Using Uncommon Singular and Plural Nouns and Pronouns

Subject-verb agreement is a tricky beast. Learn which uncommon singular and plural nouns and pronouns are most likely to trip you up when trying to craft essays with good grammar.

Sentence Agreement: Avoiding Faulty Collective Ownership

23. Sentence Agreement: Avoiding Faulty Collective Ownership

A common error occurs whenever a writer uses wording that suggests that a lot of people own or use just one thing, when really they all own or use their own separate things. This video will explain how to identify and fix this type of error.

Infinitive Verb Form: Definition & Examples

24. Infinitive Verb Form: Definition & Examples

In this lesson, we will learn about the infinitive, the basic building block of the verb in the English language. After learning about this you can test your knowledge with a quiz.

Subordinate Clause: Examples & Definition

25. Subordinate Clause: Examples & Definition

In this lesson, we will learn about the function of subordinate clauses, also known as dependent clauses, and examine a variety of examples in order to understand their role in our writing.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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