About This Chapter
ELM Data and Statistics - Chapter Summary
The data and statistics section of the ELM cover topics like data representation, predictions based on data, and charts and graphs. The lessons in this chapter cover:
- Bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs
- Categorical data
- 2-way tables
- Quantitative data
- Mean, median and mode
- Making predictions from data
Each lesson includes multiple choice quiz questions that allow you to practice what you've learned and ensure that you are ready for the ELM.
Students enrolling at California State University schools, including San Jose State University, are required to take the ELM exam. Students must pass the ELM or otherwise prove competency in math in order to stay enrolled at the university. If you don't pass ELM on your first try, you can study and take it again. However, preparing effectively before your first test date will ultimately save you time because you won't have to take the ELM again.
The data and statistics lessons are part of the ELM's Number and Data topic, which is 35% of the entire exam. This topic covers math that you likely learned in middle school and early high school. In addition to assessing your proficiency with data and statistics, the Number and Data topic includes questions in the following areas:
- Basic arithmetic
- Fractions and decimals
- Ratio and proportion
- Square roots
In addition to learning the material in the Number and Data topic, make sure to review algebra and geometry concepts, which are also tested on the ELM.
1. Statistical Analysis with Categorical Data
Learn why percentages are so important when analyzing categorical data in this video lesson. Watch as the data is turned into a data table and a visual bar graph as ways to analyze the data.
2. Understanding Bar Graphs and Pie Charts
In this lesson, we will examine two of the most widely used types of graphs: bar graphs and pie charts. These two graphs can provide the reader with a comparison of the different data that is displayed.
3. Summarizing Categorical Data using Tables
Watch this video lesson to find out why data tables are an excellent way to summarize your categorical data. Learn what you need to do to your data before constructing a table and the two ways you can show your data.
4. How to Calculate Percent Increase with Relative & Cumulative Frequency Tables
In statistics, one way to describe and analyze data is by using frequency tables. This lesson will discuss relative and cumulative frequencies and how to calculate percent increase using these two methods.
5. What is a Two-Way Table?
Do you believe in Martians? Do you watch football on television? A Two-Way Table or Contingency Table is a great way to show the results of all kinds of survey questions. In this video we will learn how to read a two-way table.
6. Make Estimates and Predictions from Categorical Data
Categorical data can be estimated but not predicted. Learn why in this video lesson along with how to read and gather information from a bar graph of categorical data.
7. What is Quantitative Data? - Definition & Examples
Watch this video lesson to find out the difference between saying you have seven apples and saying that those apples are delicious. You will learn about quantitative data and why it is useful.
8. What is a Histogram in Math? - Definition & Examples
Watch this video lesson to see how useful a histogram can be when you need to show a bunch of data in an easy to read format. Also, learn how you can easily gather the information you need from looking at a histogram.
9. What are Center, Shape, and Spread?
Center, shape, and spread are all words that describe what a particular graph looks like. Watch this video lesson to see how you can identify and explain each.
10. How to Calculate Mean, Median, Mode & Range
Measures of central tendency can provide valuable information about a set of data. In this lesson, explore how to calculate the mean, median, mode and range of any given data set.
11. Describing the Relationship between Two Quantitative Variables
In this video lesson, you will learn about quantitative variables, what they are, and how one variable relates to another. You will learn why this is important and why it can sometimes even save lives.
12. Reading and Interpreting Line Graphs
Watch this video lesson to find out how useful line graphs can be and how much information you can gain just from looking at one. Learn how you can apply that information in your own life to help you make better decisions.
13. Making Estimates and Predictions using Quantitative Data
Watch this video lesson to learn how you can read a scatter plot to learn more about a particular situation. Also learn how you can make estimates within the range of data you have and predict what may happen outside the range of data.
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Other chapters within the ELM: CSU Math Study Guide course
- ELM Test - Numbers and Data: Basic Arithmetic Calculations
- ELM Test - Numbers and Data: Rational Numbers
- ELM Test - Numbers and Data: Decimals and Percents
- ELM Test - Numbers and Data: Irrational Numbers
- ELM Test - Algebra: Basic Expressions
- ELM Test - Algebra: Exponents
- ELM Test - Algebra: Linear Equations & Inequalities
- ELM Test - Algebra: Absolute Value Equations & Inequalities
- ELM Test - Algebra: Polynomials
- ELM Test - Algebra: Rational Expressions
- ELM Test - Geometry: Perimeter, Area & Volume
- ELM Test - Geometry: Properties of Objects
- ELM Test - Geometry: Graphing Basics
- ELM Test - Geometry: Graphing Functions
- About the ELM Test
- ELM Flashcards