About This Chapter
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- Students who have fallen behind in understanding management theories or employee motivation
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- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the employee motivation chapter exam.
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Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in an employee motivation unit of a standard organizational behavior course. Topics covered include:
- Neoclassical theory of management
- Behavioral management theory
- The Hawthorne effect
- Motivation theory
- Acquired needs theory
1. Neoclassical Theory of Management: The Human Relations Approach
In the early 1920s, a shift away from classical management theory took place as theorists began to consider the human side of an organization and the social needs of employees. In this lesson, you will learn about the evolution of the neoclassical theory of management and its two sources: the human relations movement and the behavioral management movement.
2. Behavioral Management Theory: Understanding Employee Behavior & Motivation
Behavioral management theory was developed in response to the need to account for employee behavior and motivation. The shift moved management from a production orientation (classical leadership theory) to a leadership style focused on the workers' human need for work-related satisfaction and good working conditions.
3. The Hawthorne Effect: The Study of Employee Productivity
Does your behavior change when you think people are watching? This lesson describes the purpose and findings of the Hawthorne studies and their contribution to the practice of management.
4. The Needs Theory: Motivating Employees with Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Hunger, thirst, security, friendship, respect and being all that you can be are just some of the things that motivate us to take action. This lesson helps us to further understand these needs and how they motivate behavior by showing where they fall in Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
5. Theory X & Theory Y: Two Types of Managers
Have you ever thought your boss despises you and all your co-workers? Or maybe you've lucked out and your superiors really encourage you to be yourself. This lesson describes the two types of managers you might have, Theory X and Theory Y. Find out how the idea of self-fulfilling prophecies affects employees actions according to Douglas McGregor.
6. Motivation Theory: Needs-Based & Behavior-Based
There are two schools of thought used to explain employee motivation in the workplace. Needs-based theory states that employees have certain needs that must be met in order to be motivated to perform. Behavior-based theory believes motivating factors influence behavior towards work.
7. The Pygmalion Effect: Influencing Employee Behavior
Setting expectations for employee performance and behavior is one of the primary responsibilities of management. This lesson defines the Pygmalion Effect and describes how it is used to influence employee behavior.
8. Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory: Hygiene Factors & Motivation
This lesson describes Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory, which is based on the idea of how hygiene factors and satisfiers or motivators are used to provide satisfaction to employees in work environments.
9. Alderfer's ERG Theory & Employee Motivation in the Workplace
Alderfer's ERG theory is a simplified version of Maslow's hierarchy of needs that suggests that all human needs can be accessed and satisfied simultaneously, rather than from the bottom up. Either way, as needs are satisfied, employees are motivated to strive to satisfy a new need.
10. Acquired Needs Theory: Need for Achievement, Power & Affiliation
Do you act out of a need for achievement, power or affiliation? This lesson describes the acquired needs theory and how one of the three types of needs affect us more than the others.
11. Equity Theory of Motivation: Reward & Effort
Have you ever noticed that some employees seem to work harder than others for the same reward? Why does that happen? This lesson explains how equity theory is used by managers to motivate employees by providing a high reward for equivalent efforts on part of the employee.
12. Vroom's Expectancy Theory of Employee Motivation
Finding the right equation for motivating employees can be challenging. This lesson explains how expectancy theory is used to motivate employees by increasing the motivation to act based on a set of specific criteria.
13. Thorndike's Reinforcement Theory: Using Consequences to Motivate Employees
In the workplace, there are levels of acceptable behavior. As a manager, it is important to use appropriate techniques that reinforce acceptable behavior and deter inappropriate behavior. This lesson describes how reinforcement theory is used to influence employee behavior through consequences.
14. Locke's Goal-Setting Theory: Using Goals to Advance Motivation
Locke's Goal-Setting Theory uses clear and challenging goals to advance employee motivation in the workplace. Goals that are well defined and challenging to attain are more likely to be met because they hold intrinsic and extrinsic value to the employee.
15. Self-determination & Cognitive Evaluation Theories: Employee Motivation
In this lesson, you will learn about the self-determination theory and Cognitive Evaluation Theory of motivation. Find out how the principles of these theories can explain employee motivation in the workplace.
16. Reward Systems & Employee Behavior: Intrinsic & Extrinsic Rewards
Have you ever wondered why some employees are more motivated than others to work at a higher level of productivity? This lesson explains how managers use intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to reinforce positive employee behavior.
17. How to Empower Employees & Improve Employee Performance
Empowered employees have the potential to reach high levels of productivity because they feel in control of their jobs. This lesson will describe how a manager can empower an employee to motivate employee performance.
18. Employee Involvement Programs: Impacts to Organizational Behavior
In this lesson, you will learn how some companies use employee involvement programs to motivate their workers and the benefits these programs provide for the employees and for the companies who use them.
19. Long-Term Orientation vs. Short-Term Orientation: Hofstede's Definition & Concept
Viewing matters from a long-term or short-term perspective will have a significant impact on strategies and decision-making. In this lesson, you'll learn about these two orientations. A short quiz follows the lesson.
20. What are Performance Goals? - Definition & Examples
Learn what performance goals are and how they are vital to your job success. Find out the keys to setting effective SMART goals, and see a few examples of how these goals can be written.
21. Empowerment in Management: Definition & Explanation
Empowerment is a management concept that can result in higher productivity and job satisfaction in your organization. But, what does it really involve, and how do you implement it? Watch this lesson to find out.
22. Escalation of Commitment: Definition & Examples
Sometimes sticking to a decision is important, but other times it is a dangerous tendency that results in magnifying the impact of a poorly made decision. In this lesson you'll learn about the concept of escalation of commitment, why it happens, why it's bad, and how you can stop it from happening.
23. Extrinsic Motivation in the Workplace: Factors, Types & Examples
Extrinsic motivation is an important concept for managers to understand. We will learn what it is, some of its key factors, and different types of extrinsic motivation. You will have an opportunity to take a short quiz after the lesson.
24. Frederick Herzberg's Theory of Motivation: Overview
Frederick Herzberg's theory of motivation identifies two sets of factors that cause an employee to experience job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Learn more about Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation and take a quiz to test your knowledge.
25. Goal-Setting Theory in Management: Definition & Examples
This lesson provides an overview on how to set goals both personally and professionally. We'll learn how goals propel us toward our individual and organizational targets.
26. Positive Reinforcement in the Workplace: Definition, Examples & Effects
Positive reinforcement is both a management style and motivational tool that supervisors can use to encourage employees to be more productive. Learn more about this practice and how it is used in the workplace.
27. Employee Retention: Definition & Strategies
Keeping employees is important to building a strong company. This lesson defines employee retention and describes various ways that companies can keep their staff engaged.
28. Employee Feedback Methods: Surveys & Questions
Taking care of employees is an important part of any business. This lesson will look at employee feedback methods including surveys and types of questions to use.
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Other chapters within the Organizational Behavior: Help and Review course
- The Evolution of Organizational Behavior: Help and Review
- Management and Organizational Behavior: Help and Review
- Foundations of Individual Behavior: Help and Review
- Personality and Behavior in Organizations: Help and Review
- Emotions and Moods in the Workplace: Help and Review
- Emotions & Moods in Organizations
- Attitudes and Values in the Workplace: Help and Review
- Ethics in the Workplace: Help and Review
- Perception and Attribution: Help and Review
- Learning in the Workplace: Help and Review
- Individual Decision Making in Organizations: Help and Review
- Workforce Diversity: Help and Review
- Organizational Communication in Business: Help and Review
- Groups and Work Teams: Help and Review
- Group Decision Making: Help and Review
- Conflict in the Workplace: Help and Review
- Leadership in Organizational Behavior: Help and Review
- Leadership Theory in Organizational Behavior: Help and Review
- Leadership Styles in Organizational Behavior: Help and Review
- Organizational Structure and Design: Help and Review
- Job Design: Help and Review
- Organizational Culture: Help and Review
- Organizational Change and Organizational Behavior: Help and Review
- Managing Workplace Stress: Help and Review
- Career Management: Help and Review
- Theories of Leadership
- Leadership Styles
- Individual Behavior in Organizations
- Global Implications of Organizational Behavior: Help and Review