About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering human anatomy and physiology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn human anatomy and physiology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding hormones or the endocrine system
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about the endocrine system
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Endocrine System chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Endocrine System chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any endocrine system question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:
- Which glands make up the endocrine system?
- What is the role of hormones?
- Which hormones are produced by the anterior pituitary gland?
- What is the pituitary gland's relationship with the hypothalamus?
- Which disorders can result from pituitary dysfunction?
- Which hormones are produced by the thyroid gland and how do they help regulate metabolism?
- Which disorders can result from abnormal thyroid function?
- How is the parathyroid gland important to calcium metabolism?
- How does the pancreas produce insulin?
- Which disorders can result from abnormal functioning of the pancreas?
- What are the structures and functions of the adrenal glands?
- How do epinephrine and norepinephrine help us adapt to stress?
- What role do androgens play in the body?
- What are the functions of cortisol and aldosterone?
- How are adrenal gland disorders treated?
- What is the relationship between melatonin and the circadian rhythm?
- How do the hormones of the testes and ovaries contribute to secondary sex characteristics?
- Which hormones help to form the placenta?
1. Hormones: Definition, Function & Intro to the Endocrine System
This lesson introduces the endocrine system and provides a brief overview of each endocrine gland. It also provides the definition of hormones and describes their general function inside the body.
2. What Is the Pituitary Gland? - Functions, Hormones & Hypothalamus
In this lesson, we'll discuss the functions of the anterior and posterior portions of the pituitary gland, the hormones they release and the relationship with the hypothalamus.
3. Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland: Names & Functions
The anterior pituitary gland secretes six hormones. In this lesson, you will learn the functions of the hormones: growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
4. Pituitary Dysfunction: Disorders and Symptoms
The pituitary gland secretes hormones that affect growth, reproductive ability, and water retention. If there is a hypo- or hyper-secretion of these hormones, the result can be a number of conditions, including pituitary dwarfism, gigantism, acromegaly, sterility, or diabetes insipidus.
5. The Thyroid Gland: Functions, Calcitonin & TSH
Your thyroid gland produces the hormones T3 and thyroxine (T4), which play a role in metabolism. Your thyroid also produces calcitonin, which helps regulate blood calcium levels. In this lesson, you will learn about the thyroid gland and its hormones, including how they are regulated by TSH.
6. Thyroid Disorders: Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism & Thyroidectomy
The thyroid gland produces hormones that help set your metabolic rate. This lesson will discuss conditions of the thyroid gland, including hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, and their related symptoms.
7. Parathyroid Gland: Calcium Metabolism, Osteoclasts & PTH
The parathyroid glands are tiny endocrine glands found on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. In this lesson,, you will learn about the parathyroid glands, and the role parathyroid hormone plays in maintaining normal blood calcium levels.
8. Pancreas: Functions, Anatomy & Insulin Production
The islets of Langerhans within your pancreas produce the hormones insulin and glucagon. In this lesson, you will learn how these hormones regulate your blood sugar level in opposite ways.
9. Disorders of the Pancreas: Types, Symptoms & Treatments
The pancreas produces insulin. If the pancreas is incapable of producing insulin or cells do not respond to this hormone, then a person can develop diabetes mellitus. In this lesson, you will learn about diabetes and how it relates to the pancreas.
10. Adrenal Glands: Function, Cortex & Medulla
The adrenal glands sit on top of your kidneys and are comprised of an inner medulla region that is enclosed by the outer adrenal cortex. Both portions of the adrenal gland secrete hormones that regulate body functions and help maintain internal balance.
11. Adrenal Glands: Epinephrine, Norepinephrine & Stress Adaptation
The adrenal medulla is the central portion of the adrenal gland. In this lesson, you will learn about the two hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla - epinephrine and norepinephrine - and how they help you deal with short-term stressors.
12. Adrenal Cortex: Glucocorticoids and Androgens
The adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones. In this lesson, you will learn about two of these steroid hormones: glucocorticoids, which help you deal with long-term stress, and androgens, which influence male sexual characteristics.
13. Adrenal Cortex: Aldosterone and Body Fluid Balance
Mineralocorticoids are a type of steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. In this lesson, you will learn about the main mineralocorticoid, aldosterone, and how it regulates your body's salt and water balance.
14. Adrenal Gland Disorders & Treatments: Addison's Disease and Prednisone
The adrenal glands secrete hormones that help maintain balance in your body. But, if these hormones are over- or under-secreted, disease can develop. In this lesson, you will learn about disorders of the adrenal glands, including Addison's disease and Cushing's syndrome, as well as their treatments.
15. Pineal Gland, Functions, Melatonin & Circadian Rhythm
Deep inside your brain sits a very small endocrine gland called the pineal gland. This tiny gland secretes the hormone melatonin, and in this lesson, you will learn about the role melatonin plays in regulating sleep and wake cycles.
16. Hormones of the Testes and Ovaries: Functions & Anatomical Features
The testes and the ovaries secrete steroid hormones that help you grow and develop. In this lesson, we will learn about the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and the male hormone, testosterone, and how these hormones influence the development of secondary sex characteristics.
17. Hormones of the Placenta: Estrogen, Progesterone & hCG
The placenta is an endocrine gland that is only present during pregnancy. In this lesson, you will learn about the hormones it produces, including human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), progesterone, estrogen, and human placental lactogen (hPL).
18. Adrenal Fatigue: Symptoms, Treatment & Diet
Adrenal fatigue is an uncommon medical condition that can cause serious problems if left untreated. In this lesson, we will learn about adrenal fatigue, including its symptoms and treatment.
19. Adrenaline: Definition & Effects
In this lesson, we will explore the hormone adrenaline to learn what it is, where it is produced, and what it does to the organ systems of your body when it is released.
20. What is Hypothyroidism? - Symptoms & Treatment
Almost five percent of Americans over the age of 12 have hypothyroidism. Learn about hypothyroidism, its symptoms, how hypothyroidism is treated, and more.
21. Callus: Definition, Formation & Treatment
You're probably familiar with the term calluses, even if you don't quite know what they are. Read on to learn what a callus is, how it forms, and how you can treat it. Then take a short quiz on the definition, formations, and treatments.
22. Eschar: Definition, Formation & Treatment
Eschars are crusty or leathery dead patches of tissue found on wounds. Read this lesson to learn what causes them, how they form, and how they are treated. Warning: this lesson isn't for the faint of heart -- or stomach!
23. Excoriation: Definition & Treatment
Excoriation is a difficult condition to diagnose and treat because it is a type of mental disorder. Read through this lesson to learn what excoriation is, how it develops, what it causes a person to do, and how it is treated.
24. Insulin Resistance: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment
Insulin resistance can develop into type 2 diabetes if left untreated. However, making lifestyle changes can drastically reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Learn more about insulin resistance, including risk factors, how to test for it, and how you can reverse it.
25. Lichenification of Skin: Definition & Treatment
Lichenification of the skin sounds like something out of a movie, but it is a real condition that unfortunately affects many people. Read this lesson to learn more about the symptoms and treatment options.
26. Macule: Definition & Treatment
Have you ever seen small spots on your skin that are a different color than the majority of the rest of it? Did you ever wonder what these spots were? In this lesson, learn the definition of a macule as well as available treatment options.
27. Milia: Definition, Causes & Treatment
Have you ever noticed small, white bumps across the nose and cheeks of a newborn and wondered what they were? Learn more about milia and its causes and treatments in this lesson.
28. Papule: Definition, Causes & Treatment
A papule is a blemish that forms on the skin. Watch this lesson to learn more about what it looks like, what causes it to form, and how to treat it should one form on you.
29. Polydipsia: Definition, Causes & Symptoms
Polydipsia is another word for excessive thirst. Read on to find out what causes this extreme thirst, what the other symptoms may be, and how to treat it (besides drinking lots of water).
30. Pressure Ulcer: Definition, Stages & Treatment
What is a pressure ulcer? You may have heard them referred to as bedsores, since they happen when pressure on parts of the body causes sores to develop. Read this lesson to learn about how they're classified and treated.
31. Pustule: Definition, Causes & Treatment
The word pustule probably conjures up some interesting images in your head. Read this lesson to learn exactly what a pustule is, how it forms, the associated symptoms, and how it can be treated.
32. What Are Petechiae? - Definition, Causes & Treatment
Have you ever seen one, or maybe even many, reddish-purple spots on your skin? In this lesson, learn about the colored skin lesions called petechiae, their causes, and how they can be treated.
33. What Is a Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT)? - Definition & Side Effects
Some people avoid the glucose tolerance test when their doctors order it. It sounds scary, but is it really? (Answer: no, not really.) Discover what the glucose tolerance test is, and what it is used for.
34. What Is a Keloid Scar? - Definition, Causes & Removal
What happens when the body's own injury repair system just doesn't know when to stop repairing? A keloid forms! Learn more about this fascinating phenomenon with this lesson.
35. What Is Acromegaly? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Explore the cause of acromegaly and how it will affect those that have been diagnosis with the disease process. Learn signs, symptoms, and current treatment.
36. What Is ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)? - Definition, Function & Deficiency
Does the term ACTH confuse you? Do the complex regulatory mechanisms in the adrenal system give you a never ending headache? If so, this lesson will demystify ACTH; it's function, role, and place in the endocrine system and human disease.
37. What Is DKA? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life threatening condition for patients with diabetes. Learn the trigger for, the symptoms of, and the treatment for this terrifying condition in this lesson.
38. What Is Erythema? - Definition, Symptoms & Causes
Have you ever wondered what that red area on your skin is called? This lesson will review what erythema is, associated symptoms of erythema, and potential causes.
39. What Is Hirsutism? - Definition, Causes & Treatment
Hirsuitism is a disorder that affects a small number of women. Read more about the phenomenon of hirsuitism, its various causes and forms of treatment available. Then test your knowledge with a quiz.
40. What Is Hyperglycemia? - Definition & Symptoms
Hyperglycemia is a condition that commonly affects people with diabetes, but can also be a symptom of other conditions. Learn the definition and explore the most frequently seen physical symptoms.
41. What Is Ketosis? - Definition & Symptoms
What is ketosis? It's actually a normal part of your body's metabolic processes, but sometimes things get out of balance, and too many ketones begin building up. Learn how this happens, what the symptoms are, and how it's treated.
42. What Is Melanoma? - Types, Stages, Symptoms & Treatment
Melanoma is the most dangerous and deadly form of skin cancer. Learn more about the types, stages, symptoms and treatment of melanoma, and test your knowledge with a quiz.
43. What Is Purpura? - Definition, Causes & Treatment
Purpura is a medical condition where a person has purple-colored spots or blotches on the skin or on their mucus membranes. This lesson will explain why these blotches occur, where they might be found, and how they are treated.
44. Endocrine Reflexes: Types & Functions
In this lesson we'll be learning about the different types of endocrine reflexes, simple and complex. We'll go over what these two types of reflexes are and look at multiple examples of each in the human body.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the Human Anatomy & Physiology: Help and Review course
- Inorganic Chemistry in Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Organic Molecules in Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Biochemistry in Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Basic Anatomy and Cell Biology: Help and Review
- Respiratory System: Help and Review
- Cardiovascular System: Help and Review
- Blood Vessels: Help and Review
- Digestive System: Help and Review
- Urinary System: Help and Review
- The Brain: Help and Review
- The Nervous System at the Cellular Level: Help and Review
- The Five Senses: Help and Review
- Muscular System: Help and Review
- Gross Anatomy of Muscular System: Help and Review
- Connective Tissue: Help and Review
- Skeletal System: Help and Review
- Anatomy and Physiology of Male and Female Reproductive Systems: Help and Review
- Early Development to Childbirth: Help and Review
- Overview of Nerves & Senses