About This Chapter
Endocrine System Overview - Chapter Summary
As you go through these lessons on the endocrine system, you will review the hypothalamus and mechanisms of hormone action. You will also gain an understanding of how adrenal glands function. By the end of the chapter, you should be ready to:
- Describe the function of hormones in the body
- Discuss feedback loops in the endocrine system
- Recall how the pituitary gland works
- List names for hormones of the anterior pituitary gland
- Describe anatomical features of pineal, thyroid, and parathyroid glands
- Discuss the pancreas and insulin production
- Explain how hormones of the testes and ovaries work
- Recount seven endocrine diseases
The illustrative teaching style used by our educators will help you get up to speed on the endocrine system in little time. A short quiz is available for each lesson to test your knowledge of concepts reviewed. You can also print the lesson quizzes and use them to study.
1. Hormones: Definition, Function & Intro to the Endocrine System
This lesson introduces the endocrine system and provides a brief overview of each endocrine gland. It also provides the definition of hormones and describes their general function inside the body.
2. Feedback Loops in the Endocrine System
Your endocrine system regulates many important bodily functions. To do this, it relies on a constant source of information from chemical messengers in your body. This feedback is essential to proper cellular function, most of which goes on without you even noticing.
3. What Is the Pituitary Gland? - Functions, Hormones & Hypothalamus
In this lesson, we'll discuss the functions of the anterior and posterior portions of the pituitary gland, the hormones they release and the relationship with the hypothalamus.
4. Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland: Names & Functions
The anterior pituitary gland secretes six hormones. In this lesson, you will learn the functions of the hormones: growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
5. Pineal Gland, Functions, Melatonin & Circadian Rhythm
Deep inside your brain sits a very small endocrine gland called the pineal gland. This tiny gland secretes the hormone melatonin, and in this lesson, you will learn about the role melatonin plays in regulating sleep and wake cycles.
6. The Thyroid Gland: Functions, Calcitonin & TSH
Your thyroid gland produces the hormones T3 and thyroxine (T4), which play a role in metabolism. Your thyroid also produces calcitonin, which helps regulate blood calcium levels. In this lesson, you will learn about the thyroid gland and its hormones, including how they are regulated by TSH.
7. Parathyroid Gland: Calcium Metabolism, Osteoclasts & PTH
The parathyroid glands are tiny endocrine glands found on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. In this lesson,, you will learn about the parathyroid glands, and the role parathyroid hormone plays in maintaining normal blood calcium levels.
8. Pancreas: Functions, Anatomy & Insulin Production
The islets of Langerhans within your pancreas produce the hormones insulin and glucagon. In this lesson, you will learn how these hormones regulate your blood sugar level in opposite ways.
9. Adrenal Glands: Function, Cortex & Medulla
The adrenal glands sit on top of your kidneys and are comprised of an inner medulla region that is enclosed by the outer adrenal cortex. Both portions of the adrenal gland secrete hormones that regulate body functions and help maintain internal balance.
10. Hormones of the Testes and Ovaries: Functions & Anatomical Features
The testes and the ovaries secrete steroid hormones that help you grow and develop. In this lesson, we will learn about the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and the male hormone, testosterone, and how these hormones influence the development of secondary sex characteristics.
11. The Mechanisms of Hormone Action
To keep everything regulated, your body constantly needs to send messages to different cells. It does this by using hormones. In this lesson we'll look at how hormones work and what they do.
12. Common Endocrine Diseases, Related Hormones & Their Effects
This lesson discusses seven endocrine diseases as well as the hormones involved. Specifically, we explore diabetes mellitus, Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and hypoparathyroidism.
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