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- Define hormones and describe the role they play in the human body.
- Name the hormones produced by the pituitary gland and describe the relationship between the pituitary gland and hypothalamus.
- Explain the functions of hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland, including growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin.
- Learn about disorders caused by dysfunction of the pituitary gland, such as acromegaly and gigantism.
- Discuss the anatomy of the thyroid gland and learn how the hormones it produces regulate metabolism.
- Take a look at common disorders caused by dysfunction of the thyroid gland, including hyper- and hypothyroidism.
- Name the anatomical features of the parathyroid gland. Describe the role it plays in calcium metabolism.
- Learn about the anatomy and functions of the pancreas. Take a look at how it produced insulin.
- Discuss disorders caused by abnormal function of the pancreas, including diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes.
- Understand the anatomy of the adrenal glands and name the hormones they produce. Explain the role the adrenal glands play in regulation of the sympathetic nervous system.
- Describe the role of epinephrine and norepinephrine in stress adaptation.
- Discuss the functions of androgens and glucocorticoids secreted by the adrenal glands.
- Describe how the aldosterone secreted by the adrenal glands helps regulate fluid balance. Explain the function of cortisol.
- Learn how Addison's disease can result from insufficient function of the adrenal glands. Explain how this disease can be treated with prednisone.
- Take a look at the anatomical structures of the pineal gland. Understand the relationship between melatonin and the circadian rhythm.
- Understand the anatomy of the ovaries and testes. Explain how the hormones they secrete contribute to secondary sex characteristics in males and females.
- Discuss the hormones of the placenta and explain how the placenta is formed.
1. Hormones: Definition, Function & Intro to the Endocrine System
This lesson introduces the endocrine system and provides a brief overview of each endocrine gland. It also provides the definition of hormones and describes their general function inside the body.
2. What Is the Pituitary Gland? - Functions, Hormones & Hypothalamus
In this lesson, we'll discuss the functions of the anterior and posterior portions of the pituitary gland, the hormones they release and the relationship with the hypothalamus.
3. Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland: Names & Functions
The anterior pituitary gland secretes six hormones. In this lesson, you will learn the functions of the hormones: growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
4. Pituitary Dysfunction: Disorders and Symptoms
The pituitary gland secretes hormones that affect growth, reproductive ability, and water retention. If there is a hypo- or hyper-secretion of these hormones, the result can be a number of conditions, including pituitary dwarfism, gigantism, acromegaly, sterility, or diabetes insipidus.
5. The Thyroid Gland: Functions, Calcitonin & TSH
Your thyroid gland produces the hormones T3 and thyroxine (T4), which play a role in metabolism. Your thyroid also produces calcitonin, which helps regulate blood calcium levels. In this lesson, you will learn about the thyroid gland and its hormones, including how they are regulated by TSH.
6. Thyroid Disorders: Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism & Thyroidectomy
The thyroid gland produces hormones that help set your metabolic rate. This lesson will discuss conditions of the thyroid gland, including hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, and their related symptoms.
7. Parathyroid Gland: Calcium Metabolism, Osteoclasts & PTH
The parathyroid glands are tiny endocrine glands found on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. In this lesson,, you will learn about the parathyroid glands, and the role parathyroid hormone plays in maintaining normal blood calcium levels.
8. Pancreas: Functions, Anatomy & Insulin Production
The islets of Langerhans within your pancreas produce the hormones insulin and glucagon. In this lesson, you will learn how these hormones regulate your blood sugar level in opposite ways.
9. Disorders of the Pancreas: Types, Symptoms & Treatments
The pancreas produces insulin. If the pancreas is incapable of producing insulin or cells do not respond to this hormone, then a person can develop diabetes mellitus. In this lesson, you will learn about diabetes and how it relates to the pancreas.
10. Adrenal Glands: Function, Cortex & Medulla
The adrenal glands sit on top of your kidneys and are comprised of an inner medulla region that is enclosed by the outer adrenal cortex. Both portions of the adrenal gland secrete hormones that regulate body functions and help maintain internal balance.
11. Adrenal Glands: Epinephrine, Norepinephrine & Stress Adaptation
The adrenal medulla is the central portion of the adrenal gland. In this lesson, you will learn about the two hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla - epinephrine and norepinephrine - and how they help you deal with short-term stressors.
12. Adrenal Cortex: Glucocorticoids and Androgens
The adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones. In this lesson, you will learn about two of these steroid hormones: glucocorticoids, which help you deal with long-term stress, and androgens, which influence male sexual characteristics.
13. Adrenal Cortex: Aldosterone and Body Fluid Balance
Mineralocorticoids are a type of steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. In this lesson, you will learn about the main mineralocorticoid, aldosterone, and how it regulates your body's salt and water balance.
14. Adrenal Gland Disorders & Treatments: Addison's Disease and Prednisone
The adrenal glands secrete hormones that help maintain balance in your body. But, if these hormones are over- or under-secreted, disease can develop. In this lesson, you will learn about disorders of the adrenal glands, including Addison's disease and Cushing's syndrome, as well as their treatments.
15. Pineal Gland, Functions, Melatonin & Circadian Rhythm
Deep inside your brain sits a very small endocrine gland called the pineal gland. This tiny gland secretes the hormone melatonin, and in this lesson, you will learn about the role melatonin plays in regulating sleep and wake cycles.
16. Hormones of the Testes and Ovaries: Functions & Anatomical Features
The testes and the ovaries secrete steroid hormones that help you grow and develop. In this lesson, we will learn about the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and the male hormone, testosterone, and how these hormones influence the development of secondary sex characteristics.
17. Hormones of the Placenta: Estrogen, Progesterone & hCG
The placenta is an endocrine gland that is only present during pregnancy. In this lesson, you will learn about the hormones it produces, including human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), progesterone, estrogen, and human placental lactogen (hPL).
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