About This Chapter
In a chemical sense, 'equilibrium' refers to a state during which the forward rate of a chemical reaction is equal to the reverse rate of that same reaction. In other words, the things that come out of a reaction are being formed at the same rate as the things that go into that same reaction. Equilibrium is important to understand, because some chemical reactions depend on it, such as the reaction that delivers oxygen from our lungs to other cells in our body. In these lessons, we'll lay out the basics of equilibrium and how to apply it in numerous circumstances. At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
- Define and give examples of equilibrium in chemical reactions
- Find factors that disturb a state of equilibrium
- Do calculations involving the equilibrium constant, equilibrium quotient, solubility constant and more
- Determine equilibrium between acids and bases
- Understand the basics of titration
|Equilibrium: Chemical and Dynamic||Describe the concept of equilibrium and provide instances of dynamic equilibrium.|
|Le Chatelier's Principle: Disruption and Re-Establishment of Equilibrium||Explain what factors disrupt equilibrium and how they do it.|
|Equilibrium Constant (K) and Equilibrium Quotient (Q)||Understand and calculate the equilibrium constant and equilibrium quotient.|
|Using a RICE Table in Equilibrium Calculations||Perform equilibrium calculations by designing and referring to a RICE table.|
|Solubility Equilibrium: Using a Solubility Constant (Ksp) in Calculations||Make computations to determine the solubility constants of soluble compounds.|
|The Common Ion Effect and Selective Precipitation||Take the common ion effect and apply it to solving related equations, then make reliable predictions about how precipitates may form.|
|Acid-Base Equilibrium: Calculating the Ka or Kb of a Solution||Analyze the pH and concentrations of different solutions to identify the Kb and Ka levels.|
|Acid-Base Buffers: Calculating the pH of a Buffered Solution||See how a buffer works in solutions, then work it into calculations.|
|Titration of a Strong Acid or Strong Base||Examine an acid-base titration and figure out the related pH.|
|Titrations with Weak Acids or Weak Bases||Determine techniques for compensating for pH changes as a result of titration curves.|
1. Equilibrium: Chemical and Dynamic
Learn the definition of chemical equilibrium and how it is dynamic. Discover what the equilibrium constant is and how it shows whether the reaction favors the reactants or products. Learn how chemists designate equilibrium in an equation and how they show the difference in reaction rate.
2. LeChatelier's Principle: Disruption and Re-Establishment of Equilibrium
Learn how Le Chatelier's Principle describes the disruption and re-establishment of equilibrium. Learn to explain the factors that disrupt equilibrium, such as concentration, temperature, and pressure. Learn how each of these factors affects a system in equilibrium.
3. Equilibrium Constant (K) and Reaction Quotient (Q)
In this lesson, we will first define and explain the notion of a chemical equilibrium. Then, you'll learn about the equilibrium constant and reaction quotient. Finally, we'll round off the lesson with a couple of examples to solidify what you've learned!
4. Using a RICE Table in Equilibrium Calculations
Learn what the RICE table is and how to fill in the table with the reaction, initial concentration, change in concentration and amount of product and reactants at equilibrium. Learn how to use the RICE table to calculate the concentrations and amounts and the equilibrium constant of equations at equilibrium.
5. Solubility Equilibrium: Using a Solubility Constant (Ksp) in Calculations
Learn the definition of solubility and solubility constant (Ksp) in this lesson. Interpret solubility constants and make calculations involving the dissociation of a slightly soluble compound given molar solubility.
6. The Common Ion Effect and Selective Precipitation
Learn what the common ion effect is, how to make equilibrium calculations involving it, and how to find the concentrations of ions when adding reactions in equilibrium to solutions that already contain ions.
7. Acid-Base Equilibrium: Calculating the Ka or Kb of a Solution
In this lesson, you will review acid and base strength and acid and base dissociation. You will then learn what acid and base dissociation constants (Ka and Kb) are, what they mean, and how to perform calculations involving them.
8. Acid-Base Buffers: Calculating the pH of a Buffered Solution
Learn what a buffer is, how it works, and why we benefit from having our blood buffered. Learn how to calculate the pH of a buffered solution before an acid or base is added and how the pH changes after an acid or base is added.
9. Titration of a Strong Acid or a Strong Base
Discover what titration is and how to calculate the concentration of an acid or base that has been titrated to equivalence. Learn the meaning of titrant, standard solution and equivalence point. Study titration curves and learn how to determine pH during any point of a titration between a strong acid and strong base.
10. Titrations with Weak Acids or Weak Bases
Learn about titrations with weak acids or weak bases in this lesson. Study their titration curves and learn about some of their important characteristics. Learn how to calculate pH during titrations involving weak acids and strong bases.
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