About This Chapter
Standard: Evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used. (CCSS.ELA.LITERACY.SL.11-12.3).
About This Chapter
Students who master this standard can listen to public speakers critically in order to understand and explain the speaker's point of view and the reasoning behind it. They can use effective listening skills to identify the tone of a speech, determine the speaker's stance and understand how speakers employ rhetorical strategies and selected words to make their point.
Lessons in this standard cover concepts such as:
- Criteria used for evaluating public speakers
- The steps in the listening process
- Critical listening practices for evaluating speeches
- Tips for becoming a better listener
- Purpose of informative and persuasive speaking
- Components of rhetorical proof
- Different types of reasoning
- Different communication theories
Students demonstrate standard mastery by listening to public speeches as audience members and understanding the position of the speaker and how he or she interpreted evidence to make a point. They can connect different ideas presented in a speech, describe the tone of a speech and point out the critical points that the speaker wanted to get across to the audience. Students can also show mastery of this standard by explaining the speaker's reasons for using rhetoric.
How to Use These Lessons in Your Classroom
Here are some tips for how to use these lessons to support instruction in the standard:
Rhetorical Analysis Lessons
Watch all of the video lessons on using rhetorical proof in class. Present the class with a video or text of a famous speech and have them read or watch it. Create a series of questions in an assignment and have students answer the questions in complete sentences. You can ask students to identify the uses of rhetoric in the speech, how the use of rhetoric helps the speaker connect with the audience and if the use of rhetoric was effective.
Speech Evaluation Lessons
Watch and discuss video lessons on speech evaluation criteria and guidelines with the class. Have students watch or read a speech by a well-known figure in history. Ask students to write a report on how effective the speech was, how word choice was used to establish the speaker's position and what rhetoric was used to appeal to the audience.
Audience Listening Lessons
Watch video lessons on listening and the listening process during class. Show a video of an influential or persuasive speech then divide students into groups and have them discuss the video. A representative from each group can present the key points their group heard in the speech and their understanding of the speaker's stance. Students can then discuss how their understanding of the speaker's position differed from other students'.
1. Effective Listening: Definition & Obstacles
It seems counterintuitive that a public speaker should focus on effective listening. However, a good public speaker must know a few things about his audience in order to effectively communicate his message.
2. The Four Stages of the Listening Process
As messages are sent to us, it seems as though we simply hear and react, but there is actually a process that our brains use to process the information. It begins with attending, then interpreting, responding and finally remembering the information.
3. Types of Listening: Pseudo-, Appreciative, Empathetic, Comprehensive & Critical
Although people communicate by sending a message to a receiver, the message is received in different ways depending on the information. Different types of listening styles help us effectively understand messages we receive.
4. Critical Listening & Thinking: Evaluating Others' Speeches
Critical listening skills go far beyond just hearing a speaker's message. They involve analyzing the information in a speech and making important decisions about truth, authenticity and relevance. Learn about critical listening and thinking skills in this lesson.
5. Becoming a Better Listener: Tips & Strategies
Some people say listening is an art, but to be a good listener, it takes skill. There are strategies one can use to be a good listener. Some strategies include use of body language, asking the right questions and even empathy.
6. Improving your Note-taking Skills: Strategies for Mapping a Speech
When attending a speaking event, the tendency is to listen to what the speaker has to say. But it is equally important to take careful notes to determine the central idea of the speech.
7. The Importance of Being a Civil and Ethical Listener
The listener has just as much responsibility as the speaker when it comes to ethical decision making. As listeners, we are responsible for being courteous and attentive, avoiding judgment and supporting the speaker's free speech rights.
8. Ethos, Pathos, and Logos: Importance in Public Speaking
Ethos, pathos, and logos are the foundation modes of persuasion, also known as appeals. In this lesson, you will learn about the different modes of persuasion and how to incorporate them into your speech.
9. Components of the Toulmin Model for Public Speaking: Claim, Data & Warrant
Sometimes you will be asked to analyze and create arguments. You can do this by using the Toulmin model. You will learn in this lesson the different components of the Toulmin model and how to use them to create arguments.
10. Examples of the Toulmin Model in Public Speaking
Sometimes it's difficult to find the Toulmin Model in public speaking. In this lesson, we will review the components of the Toulmin Model and see these components in use in public speaking.
11. The Differences Between Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
Inductive and deductive reasoning are often confused. This lesson introduces the concept of reasoning and gives you tips and tricks to keeping inductive and deductive reasoning straight.
12. Causal and Analogical Reasoning: Impact on Public Speaking
Causal and analogical reasoning are often confused and sometimes difficult to understand. In this lesson, you will learn the differences between the two types of reasoning and the way each of them is used in public speaking.
13. Understanding Fallacy: Impact on Reasoning
When preparing a speech or conducting academic writing, understanding how to spot fallacies in reasoning is very important. This lesson will teach you the pitfalls in types of reasoning.
14. Communication Theory, Faulty Assumptions, and Decision Making in Public Speaking
Many times the psychology of people influence how they speak and what they hear. This lesson discusses some of the faulty assumptions made through psychological phenomenon in public speaking.
15. Selective Exposure Theory & Public Speaking
Selective exposure theory has a great impact on you as a speaker and as a listener. This lesson will help you understand selective exposure theory and how to deal with it in public speaking.
16. Understanding the Serial Position Effect in Public Speaking
You don't know it, but the serial position effect has a major impact on how you memorize your speech and other pieces of information. In this lesson, you will learn some tips and tricks to memorizing information and how to understand the serial position effect.
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Other chapters within the Common Core ELA - Speaking and Listening Grades 11-12: Standards course
- Participate in Discussion: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.1
- Groups, Goals and Roles: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.1
- Use Multiple Sources of Information: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.2
- Style of a Speech: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.4
- Presenting to an Audience: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.4
- Supporting Material: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.4
- Organization of a Speech: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.4
- Developing a Speech: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.4
- Use Digital Media: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.5
- Communicate in Multiple Contexts: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.6