About This Chapter
Standard: Evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence. (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.3)
About This Chapter
Students who have mastered this standard will be able to identify and evaluate a speaker's use of evidence, rhetoric and reasoning to support a point of view or argument. They will also be able to recognize faulty reasoning, logical fallacies and distortions or misuse of evidence in an argument. The lessons in this collection will help students learn about the following:
- Evaluating yourself and others as public speakers
- The listening process and types of listening
- Evaluating speeches using critical listening and thinking skills
- Strategies for effective listening
- Mapping a speech
- Informative, persuasive and occasion speeches
- Ethos, pathos and logos in public speaking
- The Toulmin Model for public speaking
- Types of reasoning
- Common fallacies and faulty assumptions
- Serial position effect and selective exposure
- Style, delivery and inclusive language in speech-making
- Diction, dialect, grammar and pronunciation in public speaking
- Differences between oral and written language
- Types of speeches
- Non-verbal communication
You'll recognize that your students have grasped the concepts in this standard when they are able to isolate the reasoning, evidence and rhetoric presented to support an argument, as well as identify any fallacies or faulty reasoning that may be present.
How to Use These Lessons in Your Classroom
Use these tips to incorporate the materials in this collection into your class curriculum and help your students meet this Common Core standard.
Evaluate Famous Speeches
Review the lessons on inductive and deductive reasoning and causal and analogical reasoning, then play excerpts from famous speeches. Ask students to identify the type of reasoning used by the speaker.
Create and Present a Speech
Show the class the lesson 'Persuasive Speaking: Purpose and Types.' Challenge students to compose a persuasive speech about a topic of their choice, using one of the speech types presented in the lesson. Have students present their speech to the class, then hold a vote on whether or not they've made an effective argument.
Find Fallacies in Advertising
Advertisements tend to be chock-full of easily-identifiable fallacies. For a homework assignment, have students watch the two video lessons on understanding fallacies then examine the ads in a magazine or newspaper. Ask them to find ads that make fallacious claims and identify the type of fallacy used.
1. Evaluating Yourself as a Speaker: Goals & Methods
The last word of a speech does not completely end it for the speaker. A speaker must take time to evaluate a speech to determine whether the expected goals were accomplished. This lesson will explore several methods to evaluate yourself as a speaker.
2. Effective Listening: Definition & Obstacles
It seems counterintuitive that a public speaker should focus on effective listening. However, a good public speaker must know a few things about his audience in order to effectively communicate his message.
3. The Four Stages of the Listening Process
As messages are sent to us, it seems as though we simply hear and react, but there is actually a process that our brains use to process the information. It begins with attending, then interpreting, responding and finally remembering the information.
4. Types of Listening: Pseudo-, Appreciative, Empathetic, Comprehensive & Critical
Although people communicate by sending a message to a receiver, the message is received in different ways depending on the information. Different types of listening styles help us effectively understand messages we receive.
5. Critical Listening & Thinking: Evaluating Others' Speeches
Critical listening skills go far beyond just hearing a speaker's message. They involve analyzing the information in a speech and making important decisions about truth, authenticity and relevance. Learn about critical listening and thinking skills in this lesson.
6. Becoming a Better Listener: Tips & Strategies
Some people say listening is an art, but to be a good listener, it takes skill. There are strategies one can use to be a good listener. Some strategies include use of body language, asking the right questions and even empathy.
7. Improving your Note-taking Skills: Strategies for Mapping a Speech
When attending a speaking event, the tendency is to listen to what the speaker has to say. But it is equally important to take careful notes to determine the central idea of the speech.
8. The Importance of Being a Civil and Ethical Listener
The listener has just as much responsibility as the speaker when it comes to ethical decision making. As listeners, we are responsible for being courteous and attentive, avoiding judgment and supporting the speaker's free speech rights.
9. Informative Speaking: Purpose and Types
Informative speeches are written to inform your audience about a topic. There are several classifications that can be used depending on the purpose of your speech.
10. Persuasive Speaking: Purpose and Types
Persuasive writing is all about influencing people by using credibility, logic and emotion; and this can be achieved in a few ways. The speaker may want to assert a fact, a value or even a policy.
11. Understanding the Role of Special Occasion Speeches
Special occasion speeches are written and delivered to commemorate an occasion like a wedding or funeral, or even for a roast. Even though special occasions speeches seem simple, they have a few rules that need to be followed.
12. Ethos, Pathos, and Logos: Importance in Public Speaking
Ethos, pathos, and logos are the foundation modes of persuasion, also known as appeals. In this lesson, you will learn about the different modes of persuasion and how to incorporate them into your speech.
13. Components of the Toulmin Model for Public Speaking: Claim, Data & Warrant
Sometimes you will be asked to analyze and create arguments. You can do this by using the Toulmin model. You will learn in this lesson the different components of the Toulmin model and how to use them to create arguments.
14. Examples of the Toulmin Model in Public Speaking
Sometimes it's difficult to find the Toulmin Model in public speaking. In this lesson, we will review the components of the Toulmin Model and see these components in use in public speaking.
15. The Differences Between Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
Inductive and deductive reasoning are often confused. This lesson introduces the concept of reasoning and gives you tips and tricks to keeping inductive and deductive reasoning straight.
16. Causal and Analogical Reasoning: Impact on Public Speaking
Causal and analogical reasoning are often confused and sometimes difficult to understand. In this lesson, you will learn the differences between the two types of reasoning and the way each of them is used in public speaking.
17. Understanding Fallacy: Impact on Reasoning
When preparing a speech or conducting academic writing, understanding how to spot fallacies in reasoning is very important. This lesson will teach you the pitfalls in types of reasoning.
18. Understanding Fallacy: Common Fallacies
There are hundreds of logical fallacies. Some are mathematical and complex, and some are deep and philosophical. In this lesson, you will learn about some of the most common types of fallacies you will come across in public speaking.
19. Communication Theory, Faulty Assumptions, and Decision Making in Public Speaking
Many times the psychology of people influence how they speak and what they hear. This lesson discusses some of the faulty assumptions made through psychological phenomenon in public speaking.
20. Selective Exposure Theory & Public Speaking
Selective exposure theory has a great impact on you as a speaker and as a listener. This lesson will help you understand selective exposure theory and how to deal with it in public speaking.
21. Understanding the Serial Position Effect in Public Speaking
You don't know it, but the serial position effect has a major impact on how you memorize your speech and other pieces of information. In this lesson, you will learn some tips and tricks to memorizing information and how to understand the serial position effect.
22. The Style of a Speech: Speaker, Audience & Purpose
When writing a speech, a writer should consider the speaker, audience and purpose of the speech. Each factor influences the overall style of the speech.
23. How Diction Influences the Style of a Speech
Audience understanding has much to do with the speech writer's word choice. Diction involves an accurate, appropriate and understandable selection of words to better convey the meaning of a speech.
24. Major Differences Between Oral and Written Language Styles
Several differences contrast oral and written communication. Some differences seem obvious, but there's more to it. Retention, preciseness and engagement are just a few main differences.
25. Inclusive Language in Public Speaking: Respecting Diversity
Speechwriters must consider diversity when writing their speeches. A way to avoid offending people is to use inclusive language, or language that the audience is familiar with and understands.
26. Grammar & Pronunciation in Public Speaking
Using proper grammar and pronouncing words correctly are as important to the delivery of a quality speech as the content itself. Errors in sentence structure, word use and articulation will distract your audience and affect your overall speech delivery.
27. Four Types of Speech Delivery: Impromptu, Extemporaneous, Manuscript & Memorized
There are four ways in which a speaker can deliver his or her information. Once can speak from his head, commit every word to memory, read from a script or use a blended approach.
28. Using Vocal Qualities to Convey Meaning in Public Speaking
To keep your audience engaged, it is important to consider vocal qualities like volume, pace and pitch. These qualities are what keep your speech not only interesting but also engaging. Learn about vocal qualities in this lesson.
29. Considering Pronunciation, Articulation, and Dialect in Public Speaking
The speaker's culture and habits often have much to do with the vocal traits of a speech. Thus, punctuation, articulation and dialect are three very personal aspects of speech delivery.
30. The Role of Nonverbal Communication During Speech Delivery
When delivering a speech, your body movements tell almost as much about your message as your actual speech. Eye contact, body orientation, posture, facial expressions and gestures play into how your audience perceives your message.
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Other chapters within the Common Core ELA - Speaking and Listening Grades 9-10: Standards course