About This Chapter
Standard: Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author's claims. (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.8)
About This Chapter
Showing these videos in class or assigning them as homework will help your students grasp the process of evaluating lines of reasoning within sources to determine if the conclusion truly follows the premise. They will be able to point out proper reasoning and reasoning riddled with fallacies. Our experienced English teachers provide lessons in this chapter on:
- Evaluating reasoning in general and in essays and articles in particular
- Identifying and avoiding logical fallacies
- Describing specific categories of logical fallacies
When your students have learned these concepts fully they will be able to identify and craft arguments which follow a logical path of reasoning. They will also be able to point out fallacies in logic when reading others' arguments and to avoid them in their own writing.
How to Use These Lessons in Your Classroom
Plugging these video lessons into your classroom instruction is simple; here are some ideas to get your started.
Political Gaffs: Fallacy Trivia
Watch the videos defining and describing logical fallacies. Then present news bits (preferably in video) of politicians making an argument containing a logical fallacy. Have your students identify the type of fallacy, either in an open forum or on individual answer sheets if you want to make this a graded exercise. An example would be a video of, say, a senator taking a snowball into Congress to prove that climate change is not happening. This would be considered a fallacy in the appeals to ignorance, emotion, or popularity category. A possible second choice may be the category of hasty generalization.
Divide your class into equal groups of 3-5. In a single-elimination, tournament-style game, bring two teams to the front of the class, providing each a bell or some other such thing. In each turn you will provide a premise (or premises) and conclusion following from the premise(s). The student who rings their bell and correctly answers whether the conclusion is built upon faulty premises gets a point. Since this is basically true or false play, there would be no point-stealing after incorrect answers. Students will rotate turns answering the questions. It would be a good idea to present twice as many premise-conclusion examples as there are members on the teams so each student will answer twice in each round. It's up to you to decide what the winning team gets!
Assigning Videos as Homework
If the first two examples are entirely too much fun, you could always just assign videos and their associated quizzes as homework each night. Use the chapter test as an in-class quiz to test their comprehension of the main points of the lessons.
1. How to Evaluate Reasoning
Evaluating reasoning in an essay or article is an important step in critical analysis. Being able to judge if something is reasonable whether or not you agree with the argument will be our learning focus for this video.
2. Evaluating Reasoning in an Essay or Article
Being able to effectively evaluate reasoning can be helpful to you as you develop your own deductive and inductive reasoning skills and put those skills to work in persuasive essays. This lesson sheds some light on how to evaluate reasoning.
3. Logical Fallacies: Appeals to Ignorance, Emotion or Popularity
Watch this video lesson to see examples of the logical fallacies of appeals to ignorance, emotion, and popularity. You will also see how to identify them.
4. Logical Fallacies: Hasty Generalization, Circular Reasoning, False Cause & Limited Choice
Watch this video lesson to see how you can identify cases where logic is not sound. Learn the characteristic traits of hasty generalization, circular reasoning, false cause, and limited choice.
5. What are Logical Fallacies? - Define, Identify and Avoid Them
Logical fallacies are flaws in reasoning that can throw your argument off track and confuse your reader. This video explains how to identify a few common logical fallacies and how to steer clear of them.
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Other chapters within the Common Core History & Social Studies Grades 9-10: Literacy Standards course
- Evidence to Support Analysis: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.1
- Representing Core Ideas: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.2
- Analysis of Connected Events: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.3
- Understanding Vocabulary: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.4
- Role of Text Structure: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.5
- Comparing Two Points of View: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.6
- Integrating Different Types of Analysis: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.7
- Compare and Contrast: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.9
- Reading Strategies: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.10
- Samples of Informational Texts for CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.10