About This Chapter
Who's It For?
Anyone who needs help learning or identifying fallacies will benefit from the lessons in this chapter. There is no faster or easier way to learn about fallacies. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding the different types of logical fallacies
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning philosophy (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about fallacies
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra philosophy learning resources
How It Works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Fallacies chapter exam.
Why It Works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Fallacies chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any question about fallacies. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students Will Review:
This chapter helps students review the fallacies concepts covered in a standard philosophy course. Topics covered include:
- Logical fallacies, hasty generalizations, and appeals to ignorance
- Appeals to force and pity
- The ad hominem and two wrongs make a right fallacies
- Paradoxes and equivocations
- Red herrings and loaded questions
- The motive and tu quoque fallacies
- The straw man and post hoc fallacies
- Begging the question, mere correlation, and oversimplified cause fallacies
- Slippery slope, weak analogy, and inconsistency fallacies
1. What are Logical Fallacies? - Define, Identify and Avoid Them
Logical fallacies are flaws in reasoning that can throw your argument off track and confuse your reader. This video explains how to identify a few common logical fallacies and how to steer clear of them.
2. Logical Fallacies: Hasty Generalization, Circular Reasoning, False Cause & Limited Choice
Watch this video lesson to see how you can identify cases where logic is not sound. Learn the characteristic traits of hasty generalization, circular reasoning, false cause, and limited choice.
3. Logical Fallacies: Appeals to Ignorance, Emotion or Popularity
Watch this video lesson to see examples of the logical fallacies of appeals to ignorance, emotion, and popularity. You will also see how to identify them.
4. Appeal to Force Fallacy: Definition & Examples
This lesson explains what is meant by an appeal to force, and why it's a favorite of bullies and even some politicians! You'll learn how the fallacy relies on fear as a tool to influence the beliefs of others.
5. Appeal to Pity Fallacy: Definition & Examples
The following lesson covers an argumentation technique that attempts to distract from the truth by making a person feel sympathetic to the arguer. A short quiz will follow the lesson to check for your understanding.
6. Cliches, Paradoxes & Equivocations: Definitions & Examples
Learn about cliches, paradoxes, and equivocations, and how they can weaken or strengthen certain types of writing. Explore examples of all three from literature and daily life.
7. Ad Hominem Fallacy: Definition & Examples
The ad hominem fallacy is one of the most common ways that people make bad arguments. Learn what an ad hominem fallacy is, see why we should avoid making ad hominem fallacies, and see examples of what an ad hominem fallacy looks like in this lesson!
8. Red Herring: Definition & Examples
You're probably wondering what a non-existent fish species has to do with literature, right? If so, you'll definitely want to read more to discover the origins of the 'red herring' and how this slippery (not to mention smelly) colloquialism wiggled its way into becoming a literary staple.
9. Loaded Question: Definition & Examples
They might seem harmless, but loaded questions can be almost as treacherous as a loaded gun. Find out more about these rhetorical assassins in this lesson, where you'll also see a couple of them in action!
10. Attacking the Motive: Fallacy Explanation & Examples
The purpose of this lesson is to help you understand a fallacy known as attacking the motive, or when someone attacks the reasoning behind an argument, rather than the validity of the claim. Through the use of easy-to-understand examples and explanations, you'll also find out how to balance skepticism with a logical approach.
11. Look Who's Talking (Tu Quoque) Fallacy: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we'll discuss why claiming someone is a hypocrite is not a valid reason to conclude that his or her claims are false. A short quiz will follow the lesson to check your understanding.
12. Two Wrongs Make a Right Fallacy: Definition & Examples
This lesson explains why the two-wrongs-make-a-right fallacy is not a logical, or even successful, way to argue. In this lesson, you'll examine the two-wrongs-make-a-right fallacy, including some examples, and find out why it doesn't make for a very good argument.
13. The Straw Man Fallacy: Definition & Examples
This lesson covers a fallacy in logic that attempts to establish an argument that is easier to defeat because it is based on a weaker or distorted version of the original argument. A short quiz will follow to check your understanding.
14. Begging the Question Fallacy: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, you'll learn how to identify a type of faulty logic known as begging the question. You'll be able to pinpoint when others are using this fallacy in their arguments and avoid confusion with other ways people use the phrase.
15. Post Hoc, Mere Correlation & Oversimplified Cause Fallacies
The following lesson will cover assumptions we make about causation. We call these assumptions fallacies of causation. A short quiz will follow the lesson to check for your understanding.
16. Slippery Slope Fallacy: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, you'll consider the type of argument that claims that if one thing happens, a chain of events will occur as a result. Learn to identify slippery slope arguments and what makes them problematic.
17. The Weak Analogy Fallacy: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, you'll learn how to identify a weak analogy and how to create a few of your own. We'll also look at a several examples of what to avoid when making analogies.
18. The Inconsistency Fallacy: Definition & Examples
This lesson explores the fallacy of inconsistency and provides examples of this flawed argument. You'll learn how to identify when someone is using this approach and why it's problematic.
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