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Ch 2: Famous Philosophers

About This Chapter

The Famous Philosophers chapter of this Important People in World History Study Guide course is the simplest way to master famous philosophers. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure you learn the essentials of famous philosophers.

Who's It For?

Anyone who needs helping learning or mastering famous philosophers material will benefit from the lessons in this chapter. There is no faster or easier way to learn about famous philosophers. Among those who would benefit are:

  • Students who have fallen behind in understanding famous philosophers
  • Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
  • Students who prefer multiple ways of learning world history (visual or auditory)
  • Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
  • Students who need an efficient way to learn about famous philosophers
  • Students who struggle to understand their teachers
  • Students who attend schools without extra world history learning resources

How It Works:

  • Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
  • Press play and watch the video lesson.
  • Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
  • Verify you're ready by completing the Famous Philosophers chapter exam.

Why It Works:

  • Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Famous Philosophers chapter exam to be prepared.
  • Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any world history question. They're here to help!
  • Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.

Students Will Review:

This chapter helps students review the concepts in a famous philosophers unit of a standard world history course. Topics covered include:

  • Socratic philosophy, Platonic idealism and Aristotelian logic
  • Alexandrian Hellenistic philosophy
  • Political philosophies of Hobbes and Locke
  • The intersection of religion and philosophy according to Rene Descartes
  • Marxist philosophy on social class and revolution
  • Double consciousness according to W.E.B. Du Bois
  • The philosophies of Cicero, Kant, De Montesquieu, Nietzsche and more

30 Lessons in Chapter 2: Famous Philosophers
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Socrates: Life, Death and Philosophy

1. Socrates: Life, Death and Philosophy

This lecture is a whirlwind tour through the life of Socrates. It begins with an explanation of the Socratic problem, followed by an examination of his philosophy. The lecture ends with a summary of Socrates' legacy.

Who is Plato? - Philosophies, Ideas & Contributions

2. Who is Plato? - Philosophies, Ideas & Contributions

This lesson reviews Plato's life, his works, and his central ideas. It's the essential ideas that you need to understand when studying the most influential philosopher in Western civilization.

Platonic Idealism: Plato and His Influence

3. Platonic Idealism: Plato and His Influence

This lecture examines the philosophy and legacy of Plato. It covers the Allegory of the Cave, the Realm of Forms and Plato's views on politics and the soul. Finally, it shows Plato's enduring legacy in modern science.

Aristotelian Logic: Aristotle's Central Concepts and Influence

4. Aristotelian Logic: Aristotle's Central Concepts and Influence

This lesson will explore the life of the famous philosopher Aristotle. It will highlight his life in Northern Greece and Athens, as well as his interactions with Alexander the Great. It will also explain the main tenants of Aristotelian logic.

Euclid, Archimedes & Ptolemy: Alexandrian Hellenistic Philosophers

5. Euclid, Archimedes & Ptolemy: Alexandrian Hellenistic Philosophers

This lecture recounts the achievements of the many great minds that called Alexandria home. We will look at Euclid, Ptolemy, Archimedes, Aristarchus, Herophilos, Erasistratus and Eratosthenes.

Cicero: History & Philosophy

6. Cicero: History & Philosophy

This lesson recounts the life and accomplishments of Cicero. We follow his political career through the collapse of the Roman Republic. We take a look at his philosophy. Finally we examine his legacy in western civilization.

The Enlightenment Thinkers & Their Ideas

7. The Enlightenment Thinkers & Their Ideas

In this lesson, we discuss the varied and diverse 18th-century intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment. In addition to exploring its background and nature, we highlight several of the era's chief philosophers and their ideas.

Francis Bacon: History, Ideas and Legacy

8. Francis Bacon: History, Ideas and Legacy

This lesson examines the contributions of Sir Francis Bacon to science. We take a long hard look at the scientific method, with special emphasis on experimental science. Then we briefly examine how Bacon sold science to the world.

Thomas Hobbes & John Locke: Political Theories & Competing Views

9. Thomas Hobbes & John Locke: Political Theories & Competing Views

In this lesson, we discuss the two premier English political theorists of the 17th century: Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. We'll also take a look at their impact on Western philosophy in contemporary and modern times.

Rene Descartes and the Union of Religion and Philosophy

10. Rene Descartes and the Union of Religion and Philosophy

This lesson explores the beliefs and works of Rene Descartes and how he explained the relationship between the mind and body as well as religion and science.

Baron De Montesquieu: Ideas, Accomplishments & Facts

11. Baron De Montesquieu: Ideas, Accomplishments & Facts

In this lesson we will learn who Baron de Montesquieu was. Together, we will take a closer look at his history, his personal life and his legacy. We will analyze his works and the impact they have made on legal philosophy and modern-day constitutional law.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Ideas, Impact & Works

12. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Ideas, Impact & Works

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the most important philosophers of the Enlightenment period. Learn about his important works, his main ideas, and how he influenced other philosophers, movements, and governments in this lesson.

Karl Marx on Religion: How Religion Affects Social Inequality

13. Karl Marx on Religion: How Religion Affects Social Inequality

This lesson will discuss Karl Marx's view of how religion is an 'opiate for the people' and perpetuates social inequality. It will discuss how Karl Marx believed that religion was a way for the poor to accept their poverty and for the wealthy to control the poor.

Karl Marx's Theories: Class Differentiation and Revolution, Socialism & Capitalism

14. Karl Marx's Theories: Class Differentiation and Revolution, Socialism & Capitalism

In this lesson, we will discuss the difference between socialism and capitalism, how Karl Marx believed that social class dictated one's social life and who were the bourgeoisie and proletariat.

Friedrich Nietzsche: Biography, Theories & Philosophy

15. Friedrich Nietzsche: Biography, Theories & Philosophy

In this lesson, we explore the life and theories of the German philosopher who is considered the founder of the modern nihilist movement, Friedrich Nietzsche.

W.E.B. Du Bois: Theories, Accomplishments & Double Consciousness

16. W.E.B. Du Bois: Theories, Accomplishments & Double Consciousness

W.E.B. Du Bois was an important figure in American civil rights history, and his idea of the double consciousness delved into what it felt like to live as a black person in a white people's world. Learn more about his life and works in this lesson.

Who was Aristotle? - Definition & Philosophy

17. Who was Aristotle? - Definition & Philosophy

Considered to be one of the most influential thinkers of Western culture, the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle merged science and philosophy to develop a logical and virtuous means of understanding and living in our world.

Voltaire: Philosophy & Works

18. Voltaire: Philosophy & Works

In this lesson we examine the literary contributions of Fran├žois-Marie Arouet (better known as Voltaire), a prominent writer and thinker of the French Enlightenment.

Sigmund Freud's Theories: Overview

19. Sigmund Freud's Theories: Overview

In this lesson, you'll learn how the work of Sigmund Freud transformed the field of psychology and profoundly influenced both scientific and popular ideas about human consciousness and human motivation.

Confucian Virtue Ethics: Definition & Theory

20. Confucian Virtue Ethics: Definition & Theory

Confucius is credited with many wise and moral sayings that ultimately led to a way of life where morality and wisdom are central themes. Confucian virtues are used to guide thoughts and patterns of life for many throughout the world.

Descartes' Ontological Argument: Premises & Criticism

21. Descartes' Ontological Argument: Premises & Criticism

Rene Descartes (1596-1650) is still considered one of the world's most revered philosophers. His extension and expansion of St Anselm's ontological argument is still held in high regard today by philosophers of all branches.

Nietzsche's Will to Power: Summary & Quotes

22. Nietzsche's Will to Power: Summary & Quotes

The will to power is one of Nietzsche's best known and most controversial concepts. Here we will summarize Nietzsche's writings and most relevant quotations on the will to power and review how they have been understood by philosophers.

Nietzsche's Ubermensch: Concept & Theory

23. Nietzsche's Ubermensch: Concept & Theory

Nietzsche's philosophies are fairly complex and tend to be misunderstood. The one that is perhaps misused the most often in his idea of the ubermensch. In this lesson, examine this concept and see how it relates to Nietzsche's philosophy.

Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals: Summary & Analysis

24. Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals: Summary & Analysis

This lesson will summarize the three essays that constitute Friedrich Nietzsche's book ~'On the Genealogy of Morals.~' The most significant ideas in each essay will be explained and contextualized within the larger context of Nietzsche's thought.

Nietzsche's The Gay Science: Summary & Quotes

25. Nietzsche's The Gay Science: Summary & Quotes

In this lesson we will review the main ideas of ''The Gay Science,'' as well as some of its most famous quotes and their significance. ''The Gay Science'' reveals Friedrich Nietzsche's Dionysian approach to life.

Kant's Metaphysics of Morals: Summary & Analysis

26. Kant's Metaphysics of Morals: Summary & Analysis

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) established a metaphysics of morals based on the idea that rationality drives morality. His categorical imperative is still seen by many philosophers as a philosophically sound measure of discussing and establishing moral decisions.

Novum Organum by Sir Francis Bacon: Summary & Analysis

27. Novum Organum by Sir Francis Bacon: Summary & Analysis

Sir Francis Bacon's ''Novum Organum'' is a treatise meant to adjust the thought and methodology of learning about and understanding science and nature. Learn about the four Idols and the inductive method outlined in this keystone philosophy work.

The Myth of Sisyphus by Albert Camus: Summary & Analysis

28. The Myth of Sisyphus by Albert Camus: Summary & Analysis

This lesson will summarize ~'The Myth of Sisyphus~' (1942) by the philosopher Albert Camus and provide an analysis of the concept of the absurd as described in the essay.

The Myth of Sisyphus by Albert Camus: Allusion & Quotes

29. The Myth of Sisyphus by Albert Camus: Allusion & Quotes

This lesson focuses on ''The Myth of Sisyphus,'' an essay written by philosopher Albert Camus in 1942. Sisyphus is doomed to push a rock up a hill in the Underworld for all eternity as punishment for attachment to the pleasures of earthly life.

Immanuel Kant: Biography & German Enlightenment

30. Immanuel Kant: Biography & German Enlightenment

In this lesson, we explore the life and philosophy of arguably the German Enlightenment's greatest philosopher, Immanuel Kant, and his theories concerning ethics.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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