About This Chapter
Fiscal Policy & Monetary Policy - Chapter Summary
The lessons in this chapter will educate you on the components and effects of fiscal and monetary policies. The knowledgeable instructors in this video series will help you understand these topics by first discussing the Keynesian Revolution that started the movement, and then covering the policies and outcomes that followed.
As you watch these videos, be sure to note any questions or confusion you may have, then send your questions and concerns regarding fiscal and monetary policies to our expert instructors for clarification. At the end of the chapter you should have an understanding of:
- John Keynes theories and how they influenced the economy
- Basic tools of fiscal policy
- Fiscal policy moves that either expand or contract aggregate demand
- Changes in fiscal policy that affect unemployment
- The progressive nature of tax codes
- Automatic stabilizers in the economy
- Monetary policy moves that either help the economy grow or slow it down
- The timing of decisions on fiscal and monetary policy
In this chapter, you'll have the opportunity to complete lesson worksheets and quizzes to help you reinforce the material you've learned and determine what information you haven't yet mastered. Review any necessary material by going back through the video lessons. Video tags will take you to areas where main points were discussed, while lesson transcripts are written forms of the video lessons that you may read.
1. Fiscal Policy: The Keynesian Revolution
In this lesson, you'll learn how the government uses stabilization policy to smooth out the ups and downs of the business cycles. In stark opposition to the Classical approach, this Keynesian approach favors taking immediate action to stabilize a troubled economy.
2. Fiscal Policy Tools: Government Spending and Taxes
Discover the three main tools the government uses to address recessionary and inflationary economies - what economists call fiscal policy. Find out how these tools are used to help the economy in different situations.
3. Expansionary Fiscal Policy and Aggregate Demand
In the 21st century, the realities of a recessionary economy are more vivid than many of us would probably like. In this lesson, you'll learn how the government uses expansionary policy to offset recessionary gaps using real-world examples.
4. Contractionary Fiscal Policy and Aggregate Demand
This lesson examines how fiscal authorities use contractionary fiscal policy to slow down the economy and defeat the enemy called inflation. Find out what fiscal tools the federal authorities can use to contract the economy.
5. Fiscal Policy and the Effects on Unemployment
Review what fiscal policy is and how the two key components of fiscal policy can be used to influence unemployment. Find out when and how fiscal policy can be used and why it is so important.
6. Understanding the Progressive Tax Code
In this lesson, learn what a progressive tax code is, how to recognize it, and what the alternatives are. Then, learn the differences between the three tax codes: progressive, regressive and proportional. Finally, learn how sales tax would impact progressivity.
7. Automatic Stabilizers in Economics: Definition & Examples
Watch this lesson to learn about the features that are built into the tax code and the government's budget that help offset declines in aggregate demand during recessions. Referred to as automatic stabilizers, they also address the needs of individuals facing hard times.
8. Expansionary Monetary Policy: Helping the Economy Grow
In this lesson, you'll learn how the central bank helps the economy grow during recessions by increasing the size of the money supply. An overview of the three tools of monetary policy are included as well as the reasons why monetary policy leads to higher economic output.
9. Contractionary Monetary Policy: Slowing the Economy Down
In this lesson, you'll find out more about the central bank's efforts to deal with an overheating economy, what economists call 'contractionary monetary policy.'
10. The Importance of Timing in Fiscal and Monetary Policy Decisions
In this lesson, discover four different types of policy lags that occur when fiscal and monetary authorities take action in attempt to influence economic output. Find out which policy has less of a time lag.
11. Supply-Side Economics in Fiscal and Monetary Policy
This lesson explains what supply-side economics is, where it started, and how economists illustrate it. It provides a basic overview of the still-controversial theory that was popularized by President Ronald Reagan during the 1980s.
12. Managing the Economy with Fiscal and Monetary Policies
Learn what fiscal and monetary policy are and how they are used to manage the economy. Find out the goals of these policies and some of the tools that each use to help you find a job and influence the amount of money in your pocket.
13. Short-Term GDP and National Debt: Keynes' Theory
Discover the tension fiscal authorities face between the two equally rewarding goals of reducing the national debt and maintaining a growing economy in the short term. This lesson explains the tension from the Keynesian point of view.
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Other chapters within the GACE Economics (538): Practice & Study Guide course
- Basic Economic Concepts & Terms
- Scarcity, Choice & The Production Possibilities Curve
- Comparative & Absolute Advantage, Specialization & Trade
- Supply, Demand & Market Equilibrium
- Determining Price in Economics
- Government Issues in Economics
- Business Organization & Decision Making
- Producers & Production in Microeconomics
- Understanding Macroeconomic Equilibrium
- Scarce Economic Resource Markets Basics
- Economic Market Structures
- Basics of Measuring the Economy
- Understanding Economic Growth and Productivity
- Inflation & Adjustment in Economics
- Unemployment Basics
- Understanding Inflation & Unemployment
- Overview of Aggregate Demand & Supply
- Expansionary & Contractionary Gaps
- Money & the Market
- The Central Bank & Monetary Policy
- Foreign Exchange & Trade Balance
- Overview of Inflows, Outflows & Restrictions
- Personal Finance: Consumer Decision Making
- Personal Finance: Savings & Investments
- GACE Economics Flashcards