About This Chapter
Food and Agriculture - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
In this chapter, you'll learn about the agricultural and nutritional issues found in some of the least and most developed areas of the world. These include the causes of overnutrition and undernutrition, or what happens to people when they receive too many or too few nutrients in relationship to their dietary needs. The chapter will also cover the concept of food insecurity and the economic and physical factors that can compromise our access to nutritious foods.
The different types of agriculture will be discussed, including the ecologically sound and those that rely on commercial fertilizers and pesticides. You'll also find out about the research and technological developments behind the 'green revolution' and its impact on world hunger. The timely issue of genetic engineering will be covered, or how human beings are using biotechnology to modify the hereditary information of plants.
When you've finished watching the videos, you should be able to answer questions about:
- Health, hunger and nutrition, including food insecurity, overnutrition and undernutrition
- The agricultural practices associated with the most overdeveloped and underdeveloped countries
- Land conservation and degradation, particularly in the United States
- Industrialized and sustainable agriculture, including their ecological differences
- Genetic engineering, including its benefits and challenges
- Pests and how to control them
|Origins of Agriculture||Trace the origins of agriculture.|
|Malnutrition: Causes of Overnutrition and Undernutrition and Most Affected Regions||Define malnutrition, and differentiate between undernutrition and overnutrition. Highlight which regions of the world are most affected by malnutrition.|
|What Is Food Insecurity? - Definition, Impact and Prevention Efforts||Describe what is meant by food insecurity and how it relates to human population, poverty and world hunger. Address what efforts are in progress to alleviate food insecurity and achieve global sustainability.|
|Types of Agriculture: Industrialized and Subsistence Agriculture||Contrast industrialized agriculture with subsistence agriculture. Include the three kinds of subsistence agriculture in your discussion.|
|Agricultural Regions in Least Developed Countries||Define the following terms and their relationship to agriculture in least developed countries (LDC): intensive subsistence agriculture, pastoral nomadism, plantation farming and shifting cultivation.|
|Agricultural Regions in Most Developed Countries||Define the following terms and their relationship to agriculture in the most developed countries (MDC): mixed crop and livestock farming, commercial gardening, fruit farming, dairy farming, grain farming, livestock ranching and Mediterranean agriculture.|
|Problems in Agriculture: Loss of Land and Decreased Varieties||Discuss recent trends related to the loss of agricultural land in the United States, as well as global declines in domesticated plant and animal varieties. Include the efforts to increase crop and livestock yields in your answer.|
|Land Degradation and Habitat Fragmentation: The Environmental Impacts of Industrialized Agriculture||Explain how industrialized agriculture affects the environment, including land degradation and habitat fragmentation.|
|What Is the Green Revolution? - Definition, Benefits and Issues||Describe what is meant by the 'green revolution,' including its benefits and challenges.|
|Land Conservation: Criteria for Evaluation of Land and Most Endangered Lands in the U.S.||Discuss the criteria used to identify endangered ecosystems. Name at least three of the most endangered ecosystems in the United States.|
|What Is Sustainable Agriculture? - Definition, Benefits and Issues||Explain the concept of sustainable agriculture, and contrast it with industrialized agriculture. Identify the potential benefits and challenges of sustainable agriculture.|
|What is Genetic Engineering? - Definition, Benefits and Issues||Demonstrate your understanding of genetic engineering, including its relationship to agriculture and potential benefits and problems.|
|What Are Pesticides? - Definition and Difference between Narrow-Spectrum and Broad-Spectrum||Distinguish between narrow-spectrum and broad-spectrum pesticides.|
|Use of Pesticides: Benefits and Problems Associated with Pesticides||Relate the benefits of pesticides in disease control and crop protection. Summarize the problems associated with the use of pesticides, including bioaccumulation and biological magnification, ecological imbalances, environmental mobility and genetic resistance.|
|Alternative Pest Control Methods for Agricultural Use||Identify some alternative ways for controlling pests.|
1. Agricultural Societies: Definition, History & Distinguishing Features
This lesson will seek to define intensive agriculture. In doing so, it will highlight the concepts of subsistence versus commercialization. It will also define cash crops and agribusinesses.
2. Malnutrition: Causes of Over-nutrition and Under-nutrition & Most Affected Regions
Have you ever thought about your diet and whether or not you are getting the appropriate nutrients you need to remain healthy? In this lesson, we will describe the concept of malnutrition and explore the ways that people's diets can be unbalanced. We will also discuss regions of the world where malnutrition is prevalent and why.
3. What Is Food Insecurity? - Definition, Impact & Prevention Efforts
Although every human on Earth has to eat to survive, the amount of food consumed varies a great deal by region. In this lesson, we will explore the concept of food insecurity and the issues that are causing it. We will also discuss prevention methods in place to try to combat food insecurity.
4. Types of Agriculture: Industrialized and Subsistence Agriculture
In recent history, agriculture has been the main source of the food we consume on a daily basis. In this lesson, we will explore the difference between industrialized and subsistence agriculture. We will also investigate the different kinds of subsistence agriculture that are practiced.
5. Agricultural Regions in Least-Developed Countries
This lesson will seek to explain agriculture in some of the world's least-developed countries. It will highlight subsistence farming, shifting cultivation, intensive agriculture, and nomadic pastoralism.
6. Farming, Ranching & Gardening in Most-Developed Countries
This lesson will seek to explain agriculture in the modernized world. In doing so, it will highlight most-developed countries as well as intensive agriculture, gardening, and ranching.
7. Problems in Agriculture: Loss of Land and Decreased Varieties
Although we all currently rely on industrial agriculture to produce the majority of the food we eat, this type of agriculture is facing problems that may threaten its future. In this lesson, we will explore these problems and how they influence the future of food production.
8. Land Degradation and Habitat Fragmentation: The Environmental Impacts of Industrialized Agriculture
Although we all need food to survive, the methods we use to produce that food can be problematic. In this lesson, we will explore how industrialized agriculture negatively impacts the environment and, as a result, makes the land less productive in producing crops and livestock.
9. What Is the Green Revolution? - Definition, Benefits, and Issues
Over the years many significant agricultural changes have occurred in order to supply enough food for the growing human population. In this lesson, we will explore the Green Revolution and investigate the benefits and issues associated with this period.
10. Land Conservation: Criteria For Evaluation of Land and Most Endangered Lands in the US
Land is a very valuable thing and is used for many different purposes. We will explore why land should be conserved and the criteria for evaluating land. We will also identify some of the most endangered ecosystems in the United States.
11. What Is Sustainable Agriculture? - Definition, Benefits and Issues
The word 'sustainable' has become very popular these days and is used to describe many different things. In this lesson we will explore how sustainability is associated with agriculture and the benefits and issues of this type of farming.
12. What is Genetic Engineering? - Definition, Benefits & Issues
When most people think of genetics, they think of their own genes, but genetics is also very important in agriculture. In this lesson, we will explore genetic engineering and how it relates to agriculture. We will also investigate the benefits and issues associated with genetic engineering.
13. What Are Pesticides? - Definition and Difference Between Narrow-Spectrum & Broad-Spectrum
The crops and livestock we use for food are constantly at risk of harm from pests. This lesson will explore the methods for managing agricultural pests, including both narrow- and broad-spectrum pesticides.
14. Use of Pesticides: Benefits and Problems Associated with Pesticides
Pesticides are used worldwide to manage agricultural pests. They kill and repel unwanted pests, but also cause many human deaths each year. This lesson explores the widespread use of pesticides in agriculture and compares the benefits and problems associated with these helpful but dangerous chemicals.
15. Alternative Pest Control Methods for Agricultural Use
There is a move to reduce the use of pesticides in favor of more environmentally friendly methods of pest control. In this lesson, we'll explore alternative pest control methods, including how they work and the benefits and issues associated with each method.
16. Mechanical Reaper: Invention, Impact & Facts
Between the 1820s and 1850s, the American economy experienced the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution. Read more about a newly invented machine that made harvesting wheat much easier for western farmers.
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Other chapters within the Geography 101: Human & Cultural Geography course
- Introduction to Human & Cultural Geography
- The Geography of Languages, Religions, and Material Culture
- The Origin and Dispersal of Humans and Culture
- Effects of Population on the Environment
- Domestication of Plants and Animals
- Ethnicity & Geography
- Geography of Land Resources
- Spatial Processes
- Settlement Patterns
- Modern Economic Systems
- Political Geography
- Impacts of Humans on the Environment
- Renewable Resources
- Nonrenewable Resources
- Studying for Geography 101