About This Chapter
Foundations of Human Development - Chapter Summary
While scientists and medical doctors concern themselves with the development of the body, psychologists and philosophers ponder how our cognitive minds develop over time. There are many theories concerning human development, and these lessons provide a thorough overview to help you build a foundation of knowledge in this area. This chapter is separated into individual lessons that make it easy for you to find the specific areas or concepts you need to review . Furthermore, if you want to review the entire chapter, the breaks in between the lessons provide convenient stopping points to accommodate your busy schedule. Use this chapter to learn:
- What are the stages of Piaget's cognitive development theory
- Who was Jerome Bruner and what were his theories on representation and discovery
- What was Robbie Case's theory of development and how did it differ from Piaget's
- What is attachment theory and how to recognize the four types of attachment
- How to identify Erik Erikson's 8 stages of psychosocial development
- What were Freud's theories on motivation, instincts, development, and personality
- The differences between Erikson and Freud's approaches
- How to distinguish between operant conditioning vs. classical conditioning
- What were the results of Watson's experiment with Little Albert
- Who was Albert Bandura and what was his theory of learning and development
- What are common development theories about human growth
- What is Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Rogers' humanistic theory
- How to describe the ecological systems development theory of Bronfenbrenner
- Who was Lev Vygotsky and what was his cognitive development theory
- What are the adult development theories of Neugarten, Vaillant, and Levinson
1. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development focuses on how learners interact with their environment to develop complex reasoning and knowledge. This lesson will focus on the six basic assumptions of that theory, including the key terms: assimilation, accommodation and equilibration.
2. Jerome Bruner's Theory of Development: Discovery Learning & Representation
This lesson explores Jerome Bruner's theory of development, his three modes of representation, and his beliefs on learning, language, and discovery. It will also differentiate Bruner's views of learning compared to Jean Piaget's views.
3. Robbie Case's Theory of Development: Neo-Piagetian Perspective
The Neo-Piagetian perspective stemmed from criticism of Jean Piaget's Cognitive Development theory. This lesson will discuss the Neo-Piagetian perspective and Robbie Case's Theory of Development.
4. Attachment Theory: Definition & Criticism of Bowlby & Ainsworth's Theories
Relationships are built between two people. These meaningful bonds are critical for human development, and the most important type of relationship is that between child and parent or caregiver. This lesson will discuss attachment theory and the role of attachment on human growth and development.
5. Erik Erikson's Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development: Conflicts & Growth
Erikson identified eight stages of psychosocial development, with each stage presenting a conflict that must be overcome. This lesson will discuss the conflict and growth associated with each stage of development.
6. Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory on Instincts, Motivation, Personality & Development
Learn how Sigmund Freud's theories helped shape our modern understanding of human motivation and personality development. Review key terms and take a quiz at the end of the lesson to test your knowledge.
7. Freud and Erikson's Approaches to Psychoanalytic Theory: Differences & Analysis
Differentiate between Freud's and Erikson's approaches to psychoanalytic theory in this lesson. You will examine and compare developmental stages side by side and have the opportunity to test your knowledge with a quiz at the end.
8. Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning: Differences and Examples
This lesson will compare classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Examples are provided and key terms associated with each type of learning are defined.
9. Psychologist John Watson & the Little Albert Experiment
Does classical conditioning work on humans? In this lesson, you'll explore this question as poor Little Albert is taught to fear a rat. You'll also see how classical conditioning can be used in advertising.
10. Albert Bandura: Social-Cognitive Theory and Vicarious Learning
A person's cognition, environment and behavior play important roles in learning new knowledge and skills. This lesson will focus on Albert Bandura's contributions to social learning and vicarious experiences.
11. Human Growth and Development Theories
This lesson will give you an overview of the major human development theories. You will briefly examine their strengths and weaknesses and meet a few key figures from each theory.
12. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Definition, Theory & Pyramid
Why is it that when some of our needs aren't met, it's almost impossible to concentrate on other ones? Psychologist Abraham Maslow spent his career looking for these answers. Watch this lesson to learn about some of his most important conclusions.
13. Carl Rogers' Humanistic Theory and Psychotherapy
Carl Rogers is often credited with being one of the most influential psychologists of the 20th century with contributions that include client-centered therapy, self-actualization, and the theory of self.
14. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory of Development: Definition & Examples
Learn about Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory in this lesson and explore the five levels of the environment that can influence human development.
15. Lev Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
The role of culture and social interactions are imperative to cognitive development, according to psychologist, Lev Vygotsky. This lesson will discuss how social interactions play a role in cognitive development of children, provide an overview of Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory and describe the stages of speech and language development.
16. Theories of Adult Development: Levinson, Vaillant & Neugarten
Understanding adult development is an important step in the process of understanding how societies function. This lesson will focus on three theories of adult development proposed by Daniel Levinson, George Vaillant, and Bernice Neugarten.
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Other chapters within the Psychology 107: Life Span Developmental Psychology course
- Intro to Human Development
- Research Methods for Human Development
- Genetic Influences in Human Development
- Overview of Prenatal Development
- Childbirth and the Neonatal Period
- Human Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood
- Early Childhood Physical and Cognitive Development
- Early Childhood Psychosocial Development
- Human Development in Middle Childhood
- Adolescent Physical and Sexual Development
- Adolescent Psychosocial Development
- Early Adulthood Physical and Cognitive Development
- Early Adulthood Psychosocial Development
- Middle Adulthood Physical and Cognitive Development
- Middle Adulthood Psychosocial Development
- Late Adulthood Physical Development
- Late Adulthood Psychosocial and Cognitive Development
- Stages and Psychological Impact of Death and Dying
- Studying for Psychology 107