# Ch 2: FTCE Middle Grades Math: Mathematical Reasoning

### About This Chapter

## FTCE Middle Grades Math: Mathematical Reasoning - Chapter Summary

This engaging chapter contains brief lessons that can help you prepare for the mathematical reasoning questions you'll find on the FTCE Middle Grades Math exam. Lesson topics include logic and critical thinking as they're used in mathematics, plus truth values, truth tables and propositions. You'll also learn about disjunctions and conjunctions, plus conditional statements in math. After you complete this chapter, you should be ready to:

- Explain logic laws for the inverse, counterexample, contrapositive and converse of a logical statement
- Differentiate between inductive and deductive reasoning
- Define connective reasoning
- Describe some of the applications for direct proofs
- Give an example of an indirect geometric proof

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### 1. Critical Thinking and Logic in Mathematics

Logic has its own unique language and way of defining what is true and false. Watch this video lesson to learn how you can critically think in the language of logic while working with math.

### 2. Propositions, Truth Values and Truth Tables

Watch this video lesson and learn what truth values are and what a truth table looks like. Learn how to go from a proposition to its negation and how that affects the truth values and the truth tables.

### 3. Logical Math Connectors: Conjunctions and Disjunctions

Watch this video lesson to learn how to identify conjunctions and disjunctions. Also learn the connectors that are used with each. Learn how you can use them to make statements.

### 4. Conditional Statements in Math

Sometimes, what is true in the mathematical world of logic is false in the real world. Check out this lesson to learn how to identify conditional statements and how you can differentiate between what is logically true and what is true in reality.

### 5. Logic Laws: Converse, Inverse, Contrapositive & Counterexample

Logical statements can be useful, but only if we are able to determine their validity. In this lesson, we'll look at the various forms of a logical statement and see how they relate to each other.

### 6. Reasoning in Mathematics: Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Many people think that deductive and inductive reasoning are the same thing. It is assumed these words are synonymous. They are not. This lesson reveals the reality of these two types of reasoning.

### 7. Reasoning in Mathematics: Connective Reasoning

Connective reasoning is reasoning that has an operation, or a way to connect two phrases. The five main logic connectives will be reviewed in this lesson.

### 8. Direct Proofs: Definition and Applications

In math, we can't explain that something is true just because. That's not enough. In this lesson, we'll learn to prove things using one of our most straightforward tools, the direct proof.

### 9. Indirect Proof in Geometry: Definition & Examples

There are many different methods that can be used to prove a given theory. One of those methods is indirect proof. In this lesson, we will explore indirect proof and learn the steps taken to use this method to prove a given theory.

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### Other Chapters

Other chapters within the FTCE Middle Grades Mathematics 5-9 (025): Practice & Study Guide course

- About the FTCE Middle Grades Mathematics Test
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Problem-Solving Strategies
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: The Real Number System
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Fractions, Decimals & Percents
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Ratios & Proportions
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Factoring
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Solving Word Problems
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Exponents & Exponential Expressions
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Basic Algebraic Expressions
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Distributing in Algebra
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Rational Expressions
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Square Roots
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Radical Expressions
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Linear Equations
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Systems of Linear Equations
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Solving & Graphing Inequalities
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Introduction to Functions
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Graphing Functions
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Quadratic Functions
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Polynomial Functions
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Summarizing Data
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Charting Data
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Sampling
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Probability Distributions
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Lines & Angles
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Properties of Triangles
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Similar & Congruent Triangle Proofs
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Right Triangle Proofs
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Quadrilaterals & Polygons
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Area & Perimeter
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Circles & Arc of a Circle
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Coordinate Geometry
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Transformations in Geometry
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Principles of Measurement
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Surface Area & Volume
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Connecting Math Concepts
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Instructional Strategies & Tools
- FTCE Middle Grades Math: Assessing Student Learning
- FTCE Middle Grades Mathematics 5-9 Flashcards