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Ch 2: Fundamental Concepts in Chemistry

About This Chapter

If you're looking for a way to review basic chemistry concepts, you're in the right place. This convenient online study guide chapter helps you improve your chemistry knowledge for exams, class assignments, homework or projects.

Fundamental Concepts in Chemistry - Chapter Summary

In this chapter, you'll watch fun video lessons that explore fundamental chemistry concepts, such as chemical bonds, organic molecules, chemical reactions and the periodic table. Our expert chemistry instructors help you define chemistry terminology and understand important chemical processes. When you're finished working through the chapter, you should be able to:

  • Differentiate between atomic number and mass number
  • Explain the basics of chemical bonds
  • Interpret the pH scale and calculate a solution's pH
  • Evaluate energy change and common chemical reactions
  • Recognize periods and groups on the periodic table
  • Understand the fundamentals of organic chemistry
  • Assess the functions of monomers and polymers

The chapter comes with a variety of supplemental resources to help you further engage with the material. Print the lesson transcripts to take notes and study offline. You can also take the included self-assessment quizzes to make sure you fully understand the information. The chapter is also accessible on any Internet-connected device.

15 Lessons in Chapter 2: Fundamental Concepts in Chemistry
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
The Atom

1. The Atom

Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?

Understanding the Relationships between Elements, Molecules & Compounds

2. Understanding the Relationships between Elements, Molecules & Compounds

Everything on Earth is made of atoms, and sometimes they combine to form new groups of atoms. The sky is the limit when it comes to these combinations, which account for the vast number of things we find in our natural world.

The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods

3. The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods

How is the periodic table like the map you used on your last road trip? In this lesson, you will be introduced to the periodic table, the road map of chemists. We will discuss how the elements are organized and how you can use this organization to identify some of their major physical properties.

Atomic Number and Mass Number

4. Atomic Number and Mass Number

Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.

Overview of Chemical Bonds

5. Overview of Chemical Bonds

Learn about the most common kinds of chemical bonds: ionic, covalent, polar covalent, and metallic. Discover how they form and why they hold together. Take a quiz and see how much knowledge you've held onto.

Chemical Nomenclature & Notation

6. Chemical Nomenclature & Notation

Subscripts, superscripts, symbols and coefficients can make your head spin. This lesson will straighten everything out for you so you can be proficient in the world of chemistry.

Common Chemical Reactions and Energy Change

7. Common Chemical Reactions and Energy Change

This lesson covers the five common types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, and combustion. You will learn how to predict what kind of chemical reaction will occur. You'll also explore how matter is conserved, but energy can change.

Chemical Reactions and Balancing Chemical Equations

8. Chemical Reactions and Balancing Chemical Equations

In this lesson, you'll learn how to balance a chemical reaction equation using the conservation of matter law. You'll also learn how to write both word and formula equations, what the subscripts after a letter mean and what the numbers in front of compounds mean.

The pH Scale: Calculating the pH of a Solution

9. The pH Scale: Calculating the pH of a Solution

Learn the history of the pH scale, how to describe it and why it is used by scientists. Discover how to calculate the pH of an acid or base solutions given either the hydroxide ion concentration or the hydronium ion concentration. Learn how to start with the pH and calculate the hydroxide and hydronium ion concentrations.

The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant

10. The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant

Have you ever wondered why the pressure in your car's tires is higher after you have been driving a while? In this lesson, we are going to discuss the law that governs ideal gases and is used to predict the behavior of real gases: the ideal gas law.

Organic Chemistry & the Study of Carbon Compound Life Forms

11. Organic Chemistry & the Study of Carbon Compound Life Forms

Organic chemistry is the study of carbon-containing compounds. This lesson will explore why carbon is such an important element, and how organic chemistry is related to your life.

Organic Molecules: Functional Groups, Monomers & Polymers

12. Organic Molecules: Functional Groups, Monomers & Polymers

Though life on Earth is incredibly diverse, all of it is built upon the same basic molecular structures. In this lesson, we'll look the basic building blocks of life and see how functional groups, monomers and polymers build up organic molecules.

Biochemical Compounds: Definition & Classes

13. Biochemical Compounds: Definition & Classes

Biochemical compounds sound very impressive, but what are they? Learn about biochemical compounds, the classes of biochemical compounds, and how they are essential to life. Then see what you've learned by taking a quiz.

Biochemical Reactions: Synthesis and Decomposition

14. Biochemical Reactions: Synthesis and Decomposition

Did you know that there are thousands of chemical reactions going on in your body every day? In this lesson, you will learn about three types of biochemical reactions: synthesis reactions, decomposition reactions and reversible reactions.

Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy

15. Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy

In this lesson, we'll learn how enzymes function to lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. Enzymes bind to their substrates to perform all kinds of important and essential cellular processes, as well as processes that help you enjoy a slice of pizza!

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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