About This Chapter
Fundamental Concepts in Chemistry - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, you'll watch fun video lessons that explore fundamental chemistry concepts, such as chemical bonds, organic molecules, chemical reactions and the periodic table. Our expert chemistry instructors help you define chemistry terminology and understand important chemical processes. When you're finished working through the chapter, you should be able to:
- Differentiate between atomic number and mass number
- Explain the basics of chemical bonds
- Interpret the pH scale and calculate a solution's pH
- Evaluate energy change and common chemical reactions
- Recognize periods and groups on the periodic table
- Understand the fundamentals of organic chemistry
- Assess the functions of monomers and polymers
The chapter comes with a variety of supplemental resources to help you further engage with the material. Print the lesson transcripts to take notes and study offline. You can also take the included self-assessment quizzes to make sure you fully understand the information. The chapter is also accessible on any Internet-connected device.
1. The Atom
Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?
2. Understanding the Relationships between Elements, Molecules & Compounds
Everything on Earth is made of atoms, and sometimes they combine to form new groups of atoms. The sky is the limit when it comes to these combinations, which account for the vast number of things we find in our natural world.
3. The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods
How is the periodic table like the map you used on your last road trip? In this lesson, you will be introduced to the periodic table, the road map of chemists. We will discuss how the elements are organized and how you can use this organization to identify some of their major physical properties.
4. Atomic Number and Mass Number
Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.
5. Overview of Chemical Bonds
Learn about the most common kinds of chemical bonds: ionic, covalent, polar covalent, and metallic. Discover how they form and why they hold together. Take a quiz and see how much knowledge you've held onto.
6. Chemical Nomenclature & Notation
Subscripts, superscripts, symbols and coefficients can make your head spin. This lesson will straighten everything out for you so you can be proficient in the world of chemistry.
7. Common Chemical Reactions and Energy Change
This lesson covers the five common types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, and combustion. You will learn how to predict what kind of chemical reaction will occur. You'll also explore how matter is conserved, but energy can change.
8. Chemical Reactions and Balancing Chemical Equations
In this lesson, you'll learn how to balance a chemical reaction equation using the conservation of matter law. You'll also learn how to write both word and formula equations, what the subscripts after a letter mean and what the numbers in front of compounds mean.
9. The pH Scale: Calculating the pH of a Solution
Learn the history of the pH scale, how to describe it and why it is used by scientists. Discover how to calculate the pH of an acid or base solutions given either the hydroxide ion concentration or the hydronium ion concentration. Learn how to start with the pH and calculate the hydroxide and hydronium ion concentrations.
10. The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant
Have you ever wondered why the pressure in your car's tires is higher after you have been driving a while? In this lesson, we are going to discuss the law that governs ideal gases and is used to predict the behavior of real gases: the ideal gas law.
11. Organic Chemistry & the Study of Carbon Compound Life Forms
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon-containing compounds. This lesson will explore why carbon is such an important element, and how organic chemistry is related to your life.
12. Organic Molecules: Functional Groups, Monomers & Polymers
Though life on Earth is incredibly diverse, all of it is built upon the same basic molecular structures. In this lesson, we'll look the basic building blocks of life and see how functional groups, monomers and polymers build up organic molecules.
13. Biochemical Compounds: Definition & Classes
Biochemical compounds sound very impressive, but what are they? Learn about biochemical compounds, the classes of biochemical compounds, and how they are essential to life. Then see what you've learned by taking a quiz.
14. Biochemical Reactions: Synthesis and Decomposition
Did you know that there are thousands of chemical reactions going on in your body every day? In this lesson, you will learn about three types of biochemical reactions: synthesis reactions, decomposition reactions and reversible reactions.
15. Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy
In this lesson, we'll learn how enzymes function to lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. Enzymes bind to their substrates to perform all kinds of important and essential cellular processes, as well as processes that help you enjoy a slice of pizza!
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