About This Chapter
Fundamentals of Matter - Chapter Summary
This chapter examines fundamental concepts within the study of matter. You'll learn about the different forms of matter as well as chemical transitions, reactions and related properties. These lessons include practice quizzes you can use to make sure you've processed each topic correctly before moving on. And once you're through the chapter, you can test your overall understanding by taking a practice final exam. These lessons can help you study the following:
- The physical and chemical makeup of matter
- Distinguishing between the types and properties of each form of matter
- What goes into the processes of evaporation, condensation, freezing and melting
- How matter is conserved and how energy changes
- Differentiating between nuclear and chemical reactions
- The effects of endothermic and exothermic reactions
1. Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties
How are substances identified? There are two major ways we can describe a substance: physical properties and chemical properties. Learn about how chemists use properties to classify matter as either a mixture or a pure substance.
2. States of Matter: Solids, Liquids, Gases, & Plasma
Learn the four states of matter in the universe: solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Learn about the differences in shape and volume among the four states, which of the states is the most common and why plasma conducts electricity.
3. Phase Change: Evaporation, Condensation, Freezing, Melting, Sublimation & Deposition
Substances on Earth can exist in one of four phases, but mostly, they exist in one of three: solid, liquid or gas. Learn the six changes of phase: freezing, melting, condensation, vaporization, sublimation and deposition.
4. Common Chemical Reactions and Energy Change
This lesson covers the five common types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, and combustion. You will learn how to predict what kind of chemical reaction will occur. You'll also explore how matter is conserved, but energy can change.
5. Nuclear Reaction: Definition & Examples
Learn the differences between a nuclear reaction and a chemical reaction. Also learn how the nuclear reaction involves subatomic particles including protons and neutrons. Discover the different types of nuclear reactions including fission and fusion and also how a nuclear power plant works to produce energy.
6. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Explore a chemical reaction at the molecular level. Learn about exothermic and endothermic reactions, what they look like and what happens when they occur. Understand enthalpy and how you can use it to predict whether a reaction will be exothermic or endothermic.
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Other chapters within the Science 101: Intro to Natural Sciences course
- Atomic Structure
- Introduction to Thermodynamics
- Mechanics of Physics
- Introduction to Relativity
- Fundamentals of Electricity
- Introduction to Magnetism
- Fundamentals of Waves, Sound and Light
- Space, The Solar System and the Universe
- Introduction to Atmospheric Science
- Geology Basics
- Introduction to Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology Fundamentals
- Introduction to Biochemistry
- Molecular Genetics Overview
- Cell Processes
- Plant Biology Foundations
- Human Anatomy Overview
- Animal Reproduction, Growth and Development
- Fundamentals of Genetics
- Introduction to Ecology
- The Origin and History of Life On Earth
- Phylogeny and the Classification of Organisms
- Basics of Evolution
- Studying for Science 101