About This Chapter
Below is a sample breakdown of the Properties of Galaxies chapter into a 5-day school week. Based on the pace of your course, you may need to adapt the lesson plan to fit your needs.
|Day||Topics||Key Terms and Concepts Covered|
|Monday|| Collision and assembly of galaxies|
Distribution of galaxy properties along the Hubble tuning fork
|Starburst galaxies, galactic cannibalism, the bottom-up hypothesis|
Categories of galaxies according to the Hubble classification scheme
Types of spiral galaxies and their characteristics
The cosmic distance ladder
Hubble's law and constant
|Definition of ring galaxies|
Methods of finding the distances to celestial objects
Definition of Hubble's law and Hubble's constant, how Hubble's law works, calculations to find distance
|Wednesday|| Measuring the properties of distant galaxies|
Characteristics of stars' orbits
Dark matter and gravitational lensing
|Ways astronomers find out the properties of galaxies, megaparsec, standard candles, Cepheid variable star, finding diameter and lumosity|
Finding the orbital tendencies of stars, disk component, halo
Definition of dark matter, where it's found, gravitational lensing
|Thursday|| Galaxy clusters|
Active galactic nuclei
Seyfert galaxies and double lobed radio galaxies
|Types of galaxy clusters and their characteristics|
Definition of active galactic nuclei, their size and how they relate to quasars
Definition and characteristics of Seyfert galaxies and double lobed radio galaxies
The unified model
Supermassive black holes
|Definition of quasars, how they got their name|
Definition of the unified model, how it is used
Definition of supermassive black holes, where they are found, how they were formed and what they produce
1. The Collision & Assembly of Galaxies
This lesson will talk about how the assembly and collision of galaxies is actually related, what starbursts are, what will happen to our own galaxy in four billion years, and why our galaxy is a galactic cannibal!
2. The Distribution of Galaxy Properties Along the Hubble Tuning Fork
This lesson will explore Edwin Hubble's famous classification scheme. We'll go over the major morphological differences between the categories of galaxies and the differences within them.
3. Types of Spiral Galaxies
Spiral galaxies are classified into several different types, depending on the characteristics of certain parts of their galaxy. Specifically, this lesson will go over Hubble's classification scheme of spiral galaxies with a small nod to lenticular galaxies as well.
4. Galaxy Collisions: Ring & Elliptical Galaxies
This lesson will discuss the collisions between galaxies and what happens to the stars within them. It will also cover what a ring galaxy is and how it forms, as well as where elliptical galaxies are most common.
5. Links in the Cosmic Distance Ladder
This lesson goes over the important basics regarding the cosmic distance ladder and primary, secondary, and tertiary indicators. It will also define standard candles and parallax.
6. Hubble's Law & Hubble's Constant
This lesson will go over and define the Hubble Law and Hubble constant. We'll not only do a practice problem but also define conceptually what these two things mean to our cosmos.
7. Measuring the Properties of Distant Galaxies
This lesson will go over a couple of methods astronomers use to find out the properties of a distant galaxy, namely, its distance away from us and its mass.
8. Characteristics of Stars' Orbits in the Galaxy
This lesson will explore the spherical component and disk of the galaxy to find out what orbital tendencies stars and star clusters have within each section of the Milky Way Galaxy.
9. Dark Matter & Gravitational Lensing
This lesson will describe what dark matter is, how much of a cluster of galaxies is made of it, where it's located, and how all of this is related to gravitational lensing.
10. What Are the Different Types of Galaxy Clusters?
This lesson will define five different types of clusters: rich, poor, irregular, regular, and superclusters. We'll also find out what voids are and what the Local Group is.
11. What are Active Galactic Nuclei?
This lesson explores and defines active galaxies and active galactic nuclei. You'll learn how they relate to quasars and how big active galactic nuclei are thanks to the observations of the properties of light.
12. Seyfert Galaxies & Double-Lobed Radio Galaxies
This lesson will cover two particular kinds of active galaxies called Seyfert galaxies and double-lobed radio galaxies and their peculiarities, such as hot spots and synchrotron radiation.
13. What Are Quasars?
This lesson will go over the odd-sounding term quasar. You'll learn how the term appeared, the different kinds of quasars, and what they are actually believed to be.
14. What Are Supermassive Black Holes?
This lesson will explain to you what a supermassive black hole is, where they're found, how large they are, how they likely formed, and what they emit into space.
15. Active Galactic Nuclei & the Unified Model
This lesson will explain the unified model, a model developed by astronomers that tries to help explain how it is that supposedly different objects are really the same thing viewed from different angles.
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Other chapters within the Astronomy 101 Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans course
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