About This Chapter
Gases and Gas Laws - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Gases, such as the atmospheric layer that encircles the earth, are dispersed and random groups of atoms that are typically colorless and invisible to the naked eye. In this chapter, you'll learn about the scientific theories used to explain how and why gas particles move, as well as how to measure the physical properties of gases. You'll also find out how a change in a gas property, like temperature or volume, can affect calculations for the other variables.
As all gases have to follow the rules, just like students, the instructor will discuss the four components that make up the ideal gas law. You can also find out what happens to gases in less than ideal environments and how to use an equation to describe these situations. When you've finished watching the videos and completing the self-assessment quizzes, you should be able to:
- Identify the properties of ideal gases
- Define units of measurement and make calculations for gas pressure, quantity, temperature and volume
- Explain gas behaviors and why some move faster than others
- Identify the four components of the ideal gas law, including number of moles, pressure, temperature and volume
- Understand the relationships that exist among gas properties, such as pressure and volume
- Use scientific law to predict the behaviors of real gases.
|The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Gases||Explain the movement of atomic particles and properties of gases using kinetic molecular theory.|
|Pressure: Definition, Units and Conversions||Identify and convert among the units of measurement for gas pressure.|
|Temperature Units: Converting Between Kelvins and Celsius||Define temperature, and convert between Celsius and Kelvins scales.|
|Density of Gas||Explain how to calculate the density of a gas.|
|Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures: Calculating Partial and Total Pressures||Determine partial and total pressures using Dalton's Law, and discuss how to find the partial pressure of a gas assembled over water.|
|The Boltzmann Distribution: Temperature and Kinetic Energy of Gases||Describe the relationship between gas temperature and average kinetic energy.|
|Diffusion and Effusion: Graham's Law||Compare the relative velocities of gases by means of their molecular masses.|
|Molar Volume: Using Avogadro's Law to Calculate the Quantity or Volume of a Gas||Find the quantity or volume of a gas at standard temperature and pressure.|
|Boyle's Law: Gas Pressure and Volume Relationship||Predict how a change in volume or pressure affects the other variable using Boyle's Law.|
|Charles' Law: Gas Volume and Temperature Relationship||Use Charles' Law to calculate how a change in temperature and volume affects the other variable.|
|Gay-Lussac's Law: Gas Pressure and Temperature Relationship||Discuss how a change in temperature or pressure affects the other variable using Gay-Lussac's Law.|
|The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant||Show how kinetic molecular theory can be used to relate gas pressure, temperature and volume. Determine the amount, pressure, temperature or volume of a gas when the other three properties are known.|
|Using the Ideal Gas Law: Calculate Pressure, Volume, Temperature or Quantity of a Gas||Reconfigure the ideal gas law to find the amount, pressure, temperature or volume of a gas when the other three variables are known.|
|Real Gases: Deviation From the Ideal Gas Laws||Describe what happens to a gas under non-ideal conditions.|
|Van der Waals Equation||Explain how a modification of the ideal gas law under van der Waals Equation can account for non-ideal conditions.|
1. The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Gases
What makes a gas ideal? What types of characteristics do ideal gases have? In this lesson, we will discuss the many characteristics of gases and how knowing the microscopic properties of gas particles will help you understand the macroscopic properties of a gas.
2. Pressure: Definition, Units, and Conversions
Have you ever wondered what pressure is and how it gets measured? In this lesson, we are going to define pressure and explain some of the units that are used to express measurements of pressure.
3. Temperature Units: Converting Between Kelvin and Celsius
Have you ever wondered what the lowest possible temperature is? In this lesson, you will learn what temperature measures. You will also be introduced to the Kelvin scale (an absolute scale) and learn how it relates to the Celsius scale.
4. How to Find the Density of a Gas
The density of gas is more complicated than solids because gases are highly affected by temperature and pressure. This lesson will lead you through two equations to calculate the density of a gas.
5. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures: Calculating Partial & Total Pressures
In this lesson, you will learn how gases behave when they are mixed together and how to use Dalton's law of partial pressures to calculate partial and total pressures of gases. You will also learn how to use this information to explain how to find the partial pressure of a gas collected over water.
6. The Boltzmann Distribution: Temperature and Kinetic Energy of Gases
Gas particles are always moving around at random speeds and in random directions. This makes it difficult to determine what any one particle is doing at a given time. Luckily, the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution provides some help with this.
7. Diffusion and Effusion: Graham's Law
Have you ever been in a room where someone has put on perfume or scented lotion and a few minutes later you are able to smell it? What causes you to be able to smell something from so far away? In this lesson, we are going to use the kinetic molecular theory of gases to explain some of their behaviors and determine how we can compare the speeds of different gases.
8. Molar Volume: Using Avogadro's Law to Calculate the Quantity or Volume of a Gas
Have you ever wondered why a balloon expands when you blow it up? How something as light as air is able to exert a force large enough to inflate a balloon? In this lesson, you will learn about the relationship between the volume of a container filled with a gas and the number of gas particles that container holds. This relationship is known as Avogadro's Law.
9. Boyle's Law: Gas Pressure and Volume Relationship
Have you ever wondered how an air powered water gun works? It uses the fantastic properties of gases to make a summer day more enjoyable! In this lesson, we will be discussing Boyle's Law and the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas.
10. Charles' Law: Gas Volume and Temperature Relationship
In this lesson, we will discover why the wind blows and what causes a hot air balloon to rise, a couple of the applications of Charles' Law that explain the relationship between the volume and temperature of a gas.
11. Gay-Lussac's Law: Gas Pressure and Temperature Relationship
You may know that you aren't supposed to put an aerosol can in a fire because it could explode, but do you know why? In this lesson, we will explain Gay-Lussac's law, which shows the relationship between the temperature and pressure of a gas.
12. The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant
Have you ever wondered why the pressure in your car's tires is higher after you have been driving a while? In this lesson, we are going to discuss the law that governs ideal gases and is used to predict the behavior of real gases: the ideal gas law.
13. Using the Ideal Gas Law: Calculate Pressure, Volume, Temperature, or Quantity of a Gas
In another lesson, you learned that the ideal gas law is expressed as PV = nRT. In this video lesson, we'll go one step further, examining how to rearrange the equation to solve for a missing variable when the others are known.
14. Real Gases: Deviation From the Ideal Gas Laws
The ideal gas law is used to describe the behavior of ideal gases, but sometimes the conditions are such that gases behave differently. When this is the case we can use the van der Waals equation to describe the behavior of real gases under these non-ideal conditions.
15. Real Gases: Using the Van der Waals Equation
To understand real gas behavior we use the van der Waals equation. This allows us to account for the volume and attractive forces of gas molecules. In this video lesson you'll see this put into action, and understand how it is different from the ideal gas law.
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Other chapters within the DSST Principles of Physical Science: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- Newton's Laws of Motion
- Energy and Momentum
- Thermodynamics in Physical Science
- Waves and Optics
- Electric Power & Electricity
- Properties of Matter in Chemistry
- Kinetics in Chemistry
- Elements, Compounds, Mixtures & Solutions
- Bonding in Chemistry
- The Periodic Table
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids in Chemistry
- Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure
- Acids, Bases and Reactions in Chemistry
- Chemistry Lab Basics
- DSST Informational Resources
- DSST Principles of Physical Science Flashcards