About This Chapter
Who's it for?
This unit of our High School Chemistry Homeschool course will benefit any student who is trying to learn about the properties and behaviors of gases and how to measure them. There is no faster or easier way to learn about gases in chemistry. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who require an efficient, self-paced course of study to learn the kinetic molecular theory, temperature units, diffusion and effusion, the ideal gas law and molar volume.
- Homeschool parents looking to spend less time preparing lessons and more time teaching.
- Homeschool parents who need a chemistry curriculum that appeals to multiple learning types (visual or auditory).
- Gifted students and students with learning differences.
How it works:
- Students watch a short, fun video lesson that covers a specific unit topic.
- Students and parents can refer to the video transcripts to reinforce learning.
- Short quizzes and a gases in chemistry unit exam confirm understanding or identify any topics that require review.
Gases in Chemistry Unit Objectives:
- Use the kinetic molecular theory to describe the properties of gases.
- Define the concepts of pressure and temperature, and convert among units of measurement.
- Demonstrate how to calculate the density of a gas.
- Explain Dalton's law of partial pressure and how it's used to figure partial and total pressures.
- Explain the Boltzmann distribution and how it relates to temperature and kinetic energy of gases.
- Explain Graham's law, and compare the relative velocities of gases using their molecular masses.
- Describe molar volume and how to calculate it using Avogadro's law.
- Explain Boyle's law and the relationship between pressure and volume.
- Explain Charles' law and the relationship between volume and temperature.
- Explain Gay-Lussac's law and the relationship between temperature and pressure.
- Explain the relationship among temperature, volume, and pressure using kinetic molecular theory.
- Demonstrate how to use the ideal gas law to calculate the pressure, volume or temperature.
- Describe the properties of gases under non-ideal conditions.
- Explain how to use the Van der Waals equation.
1. The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Gases
What makes a gas ideal? What types of characteristics do ideal gases have? In this lesson, we will discuss the many characteristics of gases and how knowing the microscopic properties of gas particles will help you understand the macroscopic properties of a gas.
2. Pressure: Definition, Units, and Conversions
Have you ever wondered what pressure is and how it gets measured? In this lesson, we are going to define pressure and explain some of the units that are used to express measurements of pressure.
3. Temperature Units: Converting Between Kelvins and Celsius
Have you ever wondered what the lowest possible temperature is? In this lesson, you will learn what temperature measures. You will also be introduced to the Kelvin scale (an absolute scale) and learn how it relates to the Celsius scale.
4. How to Find the Density of a Gas
The density of gas is more complicated than solids because gases are highly affected by temperature and pressure. This lesson will lead you through two equations to calculate the density of a gas.
5. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures: Calculating Partial & Total Pressures
In this lesson, you will learn how gases behave when they are mixed together and how to use Dalton's law of partial pressures to calculate partial and total pressures of gases. You will also learn how to use this information to explain how to find the partial pressure of a gas collected over water.
6. The Boltzmann Distribution: Temperature and Kinetic Energy of Gases
Gas particles are always moving around at random speeds and in random directions. This makes it difficult to determine what any one particle is doing at a given time. Luckily, the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution provides some help with this.
7. Diffusion and Effusion: Graham's Law
Have you ever been in a room where someone has put on perfume or scented lotion and a few minutes later you are able to smell it? What causes you to be able to smell something from so far away? In this lesson, we are going to use the kinetic molecular theory of gases to explain some of their behaviors and determine how we can compare the speeds of different gases.
8. Molar Volume: Using Avogadro's Law to Calculate the Quantity or Volume of a Gas
Have you ever wondered why a balloon expands when you blow it up? How something as light as air is able to exert a force large enough to inflate a balloon? In this lesson, you will learn about the relationship between the volume of a container filled with a gas and the number of gas particles that container holds. This relationship is known as Avogadro's Law.
9. Boyle's Law: Gas Pressure and Volume Relationship
Have you ever wondered how an air powered water gun works? It uses the fantastic properties of gases to make a summer day more enjoyable! In this lesson, we will be discussing Boyle's Law and the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas.
10. Charles' Law: Gas Volume and Temperature Relationship
In this lesson, we will discover why the wind blows and what causes a hot air balloon to rise, a couple of the applications of Charles' Law that explain the relationship between the volume and temperature of a gas.
11. Gay-Lussac's Law: Gas Pressure and Temperature Relationship
You may know that you aren't supposed to put an aerosol can in a fire because it could explode, but do you know why? In this lesson, we will explain Gay-Lussac's law, which shows the relationship between the temperature and pressure of a gas.
12. The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant
Have you ever wondered why the pressure in your car's tires is higher after you have been driving a while? In this lesson, we are going to discuss the law that governs ideal gases and is used to predict the behavior of real gases: the ideal gas law.
13. Using the Ideal Gas Law: Calculate Pressure, Volume, Temperature, or Quantity of a Gas
In another lesson, you learned that the ideal gas law is expressed as PV = nRT. In this video lesson, we'll go one step further, examining how to rearrange the equation to solve for a missing variable when the others are known.
14. Real Gases: Deviation From the Ideal Gas Laws
The ideal gas law is used to describe the behavior of ideal gases, but sometimes the conditions are such that gases behave differently. When this is the case we can use the van der Waals equation to describe the behavior of real gases under these non-ideal conditions.
15. Real Gases: Using the Van der Waals Equation
To understand real gas behavior we use the van der Waals equation. This allows us to account for the volume and attractive forces of gas molecules. In this video lesson you'll see this put into action, and understand how it is different from the ideal gas law.
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Other chapters within the High School Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum course
- Introduction to Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Measurement and Problem Solving: Homeschool Curriculum
- Experimental Laboratory Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- What Is Matter?: Homeschool Curriculum
- Understanding Atomic Structure: Homeschool Curriculum
- The Periodic Table of Elements: Homeschool Curriculum
- The Representative Elements of the Periodic Table: Homeschool Curriculum
- Nuclear Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Bonding for High School Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids: Homeschool Curriculum
- Solutions in Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations: Homeschool Curriculum
- Acids, Bases and Reactions: Homeschool Curriculum
- Equilibrium: Homeschool Curriculum
- Chemistry Kinetics: Homeschool Curriculum
- Thermodynamics in Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Organic Chemistry Basics: Homeschool Curriculum
- Nucleic Acids - DNA and RNA: Homeschool Curriculum
- DNA Replication - Processes and Steps: Homeschool Curriculum