About This Chapter
Gases in Chemistry - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
This chapter is designed to provide you with an introduction to gases, one of the four basic types of matter. In addition to learning about the properties of these typically invisible substances, you'll find out how to use scientific equations and laws to calculate gas density, pressure, temperature and volume. You'll also see how the molecular weights of gases can determine how fast they move. Among other topics, this chapter includes information about the following:
- Kinetic molecular theory and the properties of ideal gases
- Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures and what happens when gases are mixed together
- Graham's Law and how fast gases can move
- Charles' Law or what makes a hot air balloon go up
- Gay-Lussac's Law and why gases explode
- The Ideal Law and how real gases behave
|The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Gases||Use kinetic molecular theory to explain the properties and movements of gas particles.|
|Pressure: Definition, Units and Conversions||Define pressure and convert units of pressure for gases.|
|Temperature Units: Converting Between Kelvins and Celsius||Learn how temperature units are used to exchange Celsius and Kelvins.|
|Density of Gas||Explain how to measure the density of a gas.|
|Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures: Calculating Partial and Total Pressures||Compute partial and total pressures; find the partial pressure of a gas collected over water.|
|The Boltzmann Distribution: Temperature and Kinetic Energy of Gases||Compare the effect of a gas temperature to its average kinetic energy.|
|Diffusion and Effusion: Graham's Law||Use the molecular masses of gases to compare their relative velocities.|
|Molar Volume: Using Avogadro's Law to Calculate the Quantity or Volume of a Gas||Compute the amount or volume of a gas at standard temperature and pressure.|
|Boyle's Law: Gas Pressure and Volume Relationship||Predict how a change in volume or pressure affects the other variable.|
|Charles' Law: Gas Volume and Temperature Relationship||Forecast how a change in temperature and volume affects the other variable.|
|Gay-Lussac's Law: Gas Pressure and Temperature Relationship||Calculate how a change in temperature or pressure affects the other variable.|
|The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant||Explain gas volume, temperature and pressure relationships using the kinetic molecular theory; use the ideal gas law to calculate the pressure, volume, temperature or gas quantities when the other three are known.|
|Using the Ideal Gas Law: Calculate Pressure, Volume, Temperature or Quantity of a Gas||Given the other three variables, reorganize the ideal gas law to compute the temperature, pressure, volume or quantity of a gas.|
|Real Gases: Deviation From the Ideal Gas Laws||Describe what happens to a gas under non-ideal conditions.|
|Van der Waals Equation||Explain how the Van der Waals Equation amends the Ideal Gas Equation to account for non-ideal conditions.|
1. The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Gases
What makes a gas ideal? What types of characteristics do ideal gases have? In this lesson, we will discuss the many characteristics of gases and how knowing the microscopic properties of gas particles will help you understand the macroscopic properties of a gas.
2. Pressure: Definition, Units, and Conversions
Have you ever wondered what pressure is and how it gets measured? In this lesson, we are going to define pressure and explain some of the units that are used to express measurements of pressure.
3. Temperature Units: Converting Between Kelvins and Celsius
Have you ever wondered what the lowest possible temperature is? In this lesson, you will learn what temperature measures. You will also be introduced to the Kelvin scale (an absolute scale) and learn how it relates to the Celsius scale.
4. How to Find the Density of a Gas
The density of gas is more complicated than solids because gases are highly affected by temperature and pressure. This lesson will lead you through two equations to calculate the density of a gas.
5. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures: Calculating Partial & Total Pressures
In this lesson, you will learn how gases behave when they are mixed together and how to use Dalton's law of partial pressures to calculate partial and total pressures of gases. You will also learn how to use this information to explain how to find the partial pressure of a gas collected over water.
6. The Boltzmann Distribution: Temperature and Kinetic Energy of Gases
Gas particles are always moving around at random speeds and in random directions. This makes it difficult to determine what any one particle is doing at a given time. Luckily, the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution provides some help with this.
7. Diffusion and Effusion: Graham's Law
Have you ever been in a room where someone has put on perfume or scented lotion and a few minutes later you are able to smell it? What causes you to be able to smell something from so far away? In this lesson, we are going to use the kinetic molecular theory of gases to explain some of their behaviors and determine how we can compare the speeds of different gases.
8. Molar Volume: Using Avogadro's Law to Calculate the Quantity or Volume of a Gas
Have you ever wondered why a balloon expands when you blow it up? How something as light as air is able to exert a force large enough to inflate a balloon? In this lesson, you will learn about the relationship between the volume of a container filled with a gas and the number of gas particles that container holds. This relationship is known as Avogadro's Law.
9. Boyle's Law: Gas Pressure and Volume Relationship
Have you ever wondered how an air powered water gun works? It uses the fantastic properties of gases to make a summer day more enjoyable! In this lesson, we will be discussing Boyle's Law and the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas.
10. Charles' Law: Gas Volume and Temperature Relationship
In this lesson, we will discover why the wind blows and what causes a hot air balloon to rise, a couple of the applications of Charles' Law that explain the relationship between the volume and temperature of a gas.
11. Gay-Lussac's Law: Gas Pressure and Temperature Relationship
You may know that you aren't supposed to put an aerosol can in a fire because it could explode, but do you know why? In this lesson, we will explain Gay-Lussac's law, which shows the relationship between the temperature and pressure of a gas.
12. The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant
Have you ever wondered why the pressure in your car's tires is higher after you have been driving a while? In this lesson, we are going to discuss the law that governs ideal gases and is used to predict the behavior of real gases: the ideal gas law.
13. Using the Ideal Gas Law: Calculate Pressure, Volume, Temperature, or Quantity of a Gas
In another lesson, you learned that the ideal gas law is expressed as PV = nRT. In this video lesson, we'll go one step further, examining how to rearrange the equation to solve for a missing variable when the others are known.
14. Real Gases: Deviation From the Ideal Gas Laws
The ideal gas law is used to describe the behavior of ideal gases, but sometimes the conditions are such that gases behave differently. When this is the case we can use the van der Waals equation to describe the behavior of real gases under these non-ideal conditions.
15. Real Gases: Using the Van der Waals Equation
To understand real gas behavior we use the van der Waals equation. This allows us to account for the volume and attractive forces of gas molecules. In this video lesson you'll see this put into action, and understand how it is different from the ideal gas law.
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Other chapters within the Chemistry: High School course
- Introduction to Chemistry
- Measurement and Problem Solving
- Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- What Is Matter?
- Understanding Atomic Structure
- The Periodic Table of Elements
- The Representative Elements of the Periodic Table
- Nuclear Chemistry
- Bonding for High School Chemistry
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- Solutions in Chemistry
- Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- Acids, Bases and Reactions
- Chemistry Kinetics
- Thermodynamics in Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry Basics
- Teaching Resources for High School Chemistry