About This Chapter
Gases - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Learn about gases with our bite-sized videos. We'll use the kinetic molecular theory to explain the movement of gas particles and examine how the effects of random particle collisions at different velocities leads to an orderly picture of the overall properties of gases.
The video lessons in this chapter simplify the scientific laws and concepts involving gas pressure, temperature and volume. If you need some extra assistance before taking the self-assessment lesson quizzes, you can submit questions to our instructors. As you make your way through the videos, you will:
- Study the properties of real gases and examine their behaviors
- Learn about effusion, diffusion and how to calculate the relative velocities of gases
- Examine the relationships between the volume, temperature and pressure of a gas
- Learn about the standard units of pressure and temperature
- Master the numerous laws and theories that govern our understanding of gases
|Real Gases: Using the Van der Waals Equation||Discover how to use the van der Waals equation to determine the behavior of real gases in non-ideal conditions.|
|Gay-Lussac's Law: Gas Pressure and Temperature Relationship||See how Gay-Lussac's law lets you predict the effects that changes in gas temperature and pressure have on each other.|
|Charles' Law: Gas Volume and Temperature Relationship||Use Charles' law to calculate how a change in temperature affects the volume of a gas, and vice versa.|
|Real Gases: Deviation From the Ideal Gas Laws||Learn about how real gases behave in non-ideal conditions.|
|Using the Ideal Gas Law: Calculate Pressure, Volume, Temperature, or Quantity of a Gas||Use the ideal gas law to predict the behavior of a gas when given three of the four variables.|
|The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant||Study the relationship between the volume, temperature, and pressure of a gas using kinetic molecular theory and the ideal gas law.|
|Molar Volume: Using Avogadro's Law to Calculate the Quantity or Volume of a Gas||Learn to use Avogadro's law to calculate the quantity or volume of a gas based on its temperature and pressure.|
|Diffusion and Effusion: Graham's Law||Compare the relative velocities of gases based on their molecular masses.|
|The Boltzmann Distribution: Temperature and Kinetic Energy of Gases||Discover how the temperature of a gas affects its kinetic energy.|
|Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures: Calculating Partial and Total Pressures||Calculate the partial and total pressures of gases using Dalton's law.|
|Pressure: Definition, Units, and Conversions||Learn about the different units of pressure and how to convert between them.|
|The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Gases||Study the properties of gases and the movement of the particles that compose them.|
|Temperature Units: Converting Between Kelvins and Celsius||Find out how to convert between Celsius and Kelvins.|
|Boyle's Law: Gas Pressure and Volume Relationship||Use Boyle's law to predict how changes in the volume or pressure of a gas affect one another.|
1. The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Gases
What makes a gas ideal? What types of characteristics do ideal gases have? In this lesson, we will discuss the many characteristics of gases and how knowing the microscopic properties of gas particles will help you understand the macroscopic properties of a gas.
2. Pressure: Definition, Units, and Conversions
Have you ever wondered what pressure is and how it gets measured? In this lesson, we are going to define pressure and explain some of the units that are used to express measurements of pressure.
3. Temperature Units: Converting Between Kelvins and Celsius
Have you ever wondered what the lowest possible temperature is? In this lesson, you will learn what temperature measures. You will also be introduced to the Kelvin scale (an absolute scale) and learn how it relates to the Celsius scale.
4. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures: Calculating Partial & Total Pressures
In this lesson, you will learn how gases behave when they are mixed together and how to use Dalton's law of partial pressures to calculate partial and total pressures of gases. You will also learn how to use this information to explain how to find the partial pressure of a gas collected over water.
5. The Boltzmann Distribution: Temperature and Kinetic Energy of Gases
Gas particles are always moving around at random speeds and in random directions. This makes it difficult to determine what any one particle is doing at a given time. Luckily, the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution provides some help with this.
6. Diffusion and Effusion: Graham's Law
Have you ever been in a room where someone has put on perfume or scented lotion and a few minutes later you are able to smell it? What causes you to be able to smell something from so far away? In this lesson, we are going to use the kinetic molecular theory of gases to explain some of their behaviors and determine how we can compare the speeds of different gases.
7. Molar Volume: Using Avogadro's Law to Calculate the Quantity or Volume of a Gas
Have you ever wondered why a balloon expands when you blow it up? How something as light as air is able to exert a force large enough to inflate a balloon? In this lesson, you will learn about the relationship between the volume of a container filled with a gas and the number of gas particles that container holds. This relationship is known as Avogadro's Law.
8. Boyle's Law: Gas Pressure and Volume Relationship
Have you ever wondered how an air powered water gun works? It uses the fantastic properties of gases to make a summer day more enjoyable! In this lesson, we will be discussing Boyle's Law and the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas.
9. Charles' Law: Gas Volume and Temperature Relationship
In this lesson, we will discover why the wind blows and what causes a hot air balloon to rise, a couple of the applications of Charles' Law that explain the relationship between the volume and temperature of a gas.
10. Gay-Lussac's Law: Gas Pressure and Temperature Relationship
You may know that you aren't supposed to put an aerosol can in a fire because it could explode, but do you know why? In this lesson, we will explain Gay-Lussac's law, which shows the relationship between the temperature and pressure of a gas.
11. The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant
Have you ever wondered why the pressure in your car's tires is higher after you have been driving a while? In this lesson, we are going to discuss the law that governs ideal gases and is used to predict the behavior of real gases: the ideal gas law.
12. Using the Ideal Gas Law: Calculate Pressure, Volume, Temperature, or Quantity of a Gas
In another lesson, you learned that the ideal gas law is expressed as PV = nRT. In this video lesson, we'll go one step further, examining how to rearrange the equation to solve for a missing variable when the others are known.
13. Real Gases: Deviation From the Ideal Gas Laws
The ideal gas law is used to describe the behavior of ideal gases, but sometimes the conditions are such that gases behave differently. When this is the case we can use the van der Waals equation to describe the behavior of real gases under these non-ideal conditions.
14. Real Gases: Using the Van der Waals Equation
To understand real gas behavior we use the van der Waals equation. This allows us to account for the volume and attractive forces of gas molecules. In this video lesson you'll see this put into action, and understand how it is different from the ideal gas law.
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